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ISSN: 2997-2248
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  • Burmese/Malayan Spotted dove (Spilopelia chinensis tigrina) (Aves: Columbiformes) in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh

    Ashraful Kabir 1  

    1Department of Biology, Cantonment Public College, Saidpur Cantonment―5311, Nilphamari, Bangladesh

    Abstract

    In nature both rural and urban areas are significant for avian diversity. In Bangladesh, spotted dove (Spilopelia chinensis tigrina) is very common and widely distributed (Figure 1; Plates 1-2). If a bird is available in nature, we should try to find the reasons for their ultimate conservation. In this regard, this article could initiate to establish birds that are less in nature. At the time of journey, living in rural or urban and workplace helped to write this article on the availability and breeding of spotted dove. A pair of binoculars used to identify dove species. In addition, an android mobile phone and DSLR camera was helpful for sufficient snaps. Result suggested based on the dove species especially emphasized in four districts of Bangladesh―Kushtia, Rajshahi, Nilphamari, and Dinajpur. Out of 15 pairs and from 17 squab, the survival young were 9 (52.94%) (Table 1).

    Author Contributions
    Received 21 Nov 2023; Accepted 11 Jan 2024; Published 03 Feb 2024;

    Academic Editor: Andreia Manuela Garcês, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by: Single-blind

    Copyright © 2024 Ashraful Kabir

    License
    Creative Commons License     This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Ashraful Kabir (2024) Burmese/Malayan Spotted dove (Spilopelia chinensis tigrina) (Aves: Columbiformes) in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Journal of Wildlife - 1(2):12-18.

    Download as RIS, BibTeX, Text (Include abstract )

    DOI 10.14302/issn.2997-2248.jwl-23-4840

    Introduction

    The number of spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis tigrina) in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh are remarkable. Spotted doves are very clean and have good interaction with humans. The global distribution of this dove is Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Assam, USA, Australia, and New Zealand. The alternative names of this dove are lace-necked dove, necklace dove, pearl-necked dove, Chinese spotted dove, Spotted turtle-dove, and Indian dove accodingly. IUCN Bangladesh (2015) mentioned this species as Eastern spotted dove (total length 30 cm) with the subspecies tigrina recently and in the country its status is Least Concern (LC); it has two synonyms―Columba chinensis, and Stigmatopelia chinensis. Cantonment areas 15, and its teachers’ quarters 17, and rice mills are target places for many birds as well as pigeons and doves 19. Phenotypically, subspecies tigrina is small, highly patterned suratensis with the nominate chinensis, and intermediate populations occur near the India-Burma border 3. Outer rectrices show more extensive white than suratensis but less than in chinensis 9. 4, 11, and Gibbs et al., (2001) mentioned four, five and seven subspecies of this spotted dove in their books. Himalayan populations move to lower altitudes in winter; and a summer visitor to northern Pakistan, although some remain in winter at lower altitudes 29. The spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) is more common and familiar species around human habitation in India 2. It is seen in open forests, secondary growth, wooded and cultivated country, parks and gardens, verandas of houses, inhabited bungalows, and agricultural fields 2. In Australia, it has a large population 7. The molecular phylogeny is related to laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis) and Nesoenas 9. The objective of this study is to observe the distribution, abundance, and breeding activities of this dove both in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh.

    Classification

    Phylum- Chordata

    Subphylum- Vertebrata

    Class- Aves

    Order- Columbiformes

    Family- Columbidae

    Genus- Spilopelia

    Species- chinensis

    Subspecies- tigrina

    Trinomial name- Spilopelia chinensis tigrina(Temminck, 1809)







    Materials and Methods

    Spotted doves were observed through the window of vehicles at the time of any journey. A pair of binoculars (vixen, joyful H6×18 mm, palm-sized compact binoculars) used to observe this species. A DSLR camera (Canon, EOS Rebel T3i) camera helped to take remarkable snaps in order to identify the taxonomy. At the jogging time at dawn, and in living places, an android mobile phone (oppo) was good for taking occasional photographs and voice recordings. From morning to evening, doves observed with their number, habitat, and breeding biology.

    Results and Discussion

    Food source of doves

    People throw food waste from the kitchen, so their numbers were significant. This dove sometimes takes winged termite 28. A study on this dove in Hawaiian Islands noted 55 species of plants, 07 species of animals, both 77% of grits and seeds, and 23% fruits in their gizzard 27. In residential areas, doves take cat and dog food from outdoor pet dishes. The food habit of this dove is mainly plants and sometimes they take few animals 5. About 90 percent of the kitchen waste is plant-based 32 in northern China to attract the spotted doves. China’s kitchen waste recycling system is not perfect, so this is rich source of food for spotted doves 7.

    Predator of doves

    Many squabs fall from the trees during fledging, and street dogs, cats, and mongooses catch them for their food. In Australia, the predator of dove is Nankeen kestrel (Falco cenchroides) 22. Predation of adults, juveniles, nestlings, and eggs by mongooses (Herpestesjavanicus) is commonplace in Hawaiian Islands; other predators include roof rats (Rattus rattus) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis27. House crow (Corvus splendens), Indian treepie (Dendrocittavagabunda), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) are the major avian predators for pigeons in Bangladesh 18.

    Breeding biology

    They make nest near human habitation (adjacent trees, side of pond, creeks of building, under roof, etc.). Most of the time, doves cannot settle their nest for human activities in urban and rural areas. Fifty percent of nesting success for the spotted dove was also reported in earlier works 30. For every attempt at breeding, the pair laid two eggs (Kumar, 1981)2, 1 or rarely three 2.25reported that young left the nest three weeks after hatching when under captive breeding. Nidification parameters include the number of eggs, egg-laying frequency, incubation period, and hatching were similar in captivity 23.Male appears to take lead in selecting nest site 12. Their nest is usually simple and consists of only dozens of twigs 33. It has three moulting stages―pre-juvenile moult (30-35 days), prebasic moult (60-70 days), definitive prebasic moult (variable timing, sexes indistinguishable by plumage) 9. In cities birds have fewer predators than the wild 34. This dove could breed throughout the year2, 1, 24, 13.

    Population trends in California probably are affected by landscape changes with increasing urbanization and loss of agricultural and natural habitats. However, increasing human density in expanding urban regions and cumulative loss of open space and old trees may be factors in the doves’ decline. The same statement is applicable in the case of Bangladesh. There is a correlation between local spotted dove declines and increasing populations of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and eastern fox squirrels 9. In Bangladesh, house crow (Corvus splendens) is major avian pest for pigeons and doves. Subspecies tigrina trapped or shot for food in northern

    Table 1. Observed the breeding biology of some pairs of spotted doves
    Observed pairs Rural and urban areas Continuity of breeding Total squabs Luck/Fate Survival of squab
     Pair 1  Moragacha  Yes  2 Captured by boys; 1 was caught by roof rat  1
    Pair 2 Cantonment Public School No - - -
    Pair 3 Cantonment Public School Yes 1 Kept with fawn dove 1
     Pair 4 Saidpur Upazila  Yes  2 Captured by vagabond; finally died 0
     Pair 5  Bheramara  Yes  2 Captured by boys; finally died 0
    Pair 6 Bheramara Yes 1 Survive 1
    Pair 7 Bangalipur No - - -
    Pair 8 Bangalipur No - - -
    Pair 9 Parbatipur road Yes 2 Survive 2
    Pair 10 Parbatipur road No - - -
    Pair 11 Teachers’ quarters Yes 2 Caught by domestic cat 0
    Pair 12 BAUST area Yes 1 Caught by domestic cat 0
    Pair 13 Rajshahi Yes 1 Survive 1
    Pair 14 Kushtia Yes 1 Survive 1
    Pair 15 Saidpur town Yes 2 Survive 2
    Total   17   9 (52.94%)

    Thailand without decrease in population 6, but in Bangladesh some tribal people are culturally habituated to hunt this dove for their meat consumption 20. The overall issue of management of nonnative nongame bird species (Streptopelia doves, waterfowl, various parrots, Euplectes bishops, and Lonchura mannikins) in California has not formally addressed 8. Since in Bangladesh, there is no hunting season to hunt animals nationally. Spotted dove remains abundant in much of the greater Los Angeles urban area 9. As a common bird in many cities in China, the spotted dove’s feeding choice may determine its dominant position in the urban ecosystem. The same abundance of spotted dove in most rural and urban areas of Bangladesh is comparable with this quote. Birds have more nesting sites and less predator in cities 31, and food is relatively more abundant in urban areas. Birdseed vendors are available at the seaside and parks 26. This study is agreed with this statement as a whole.

    Conclusions

    Due to extensive forests in South East Asia, wild doves are usually found abundantly 16. A core part of the urban ecosystem, birds provide high research value. The spotted dove might be a model species for studies of urban succession 9. The culture to keep the spotted doves in cage has replaced by foreign doves (fawn doves and diamond doves). Sometimes, vagabonds are captured the adult or squab of this dove, but insufficient knowledge on care influence to die those chicks. Tribal people of Bangladesh trained doves for hunting other doves 20 and sold for meat consumption, but this scenery is rare now. The situation of spotted dove in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh described, and provided information for improving the biodiversity of both ecosystems based on the living status of the spotted dove (Spilopeliachinensis tigrina).

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