Bangladesh many older people spend their life in not only the unwell health but also in poverty which is major risk for the elderly population. This is especially true for older women, who suffer from various difficulties ensuing from prejudices to gender, widowhood and old age. Climate migrants start living in urban slums are in search of better and secure life. But urban slums located mostly in low lying environmentally hazardous area coupled with inadequate facilities like food, shelter, sanitation, health care make their life even worse. Older Women are the vulnerable groups in society in terms of climate change, movement; haphazard growth and unhealthy environment are the target group for this research. This study represents the nature and extent of elderly abuse of climate migrant urban poor women slum dwellers in Dhaka city in Bangladesh context. Besides, this paper also observe the socio-economic status of the study respondents and try to find out the self-stated reasons of elderly abuse. This study conducted both quantitative and qualitative types study on two slums of Dhaka with purposive sample survey, KII and in depth qualitative interview of selected climate migrant slum dwellers while purposive sample size of 50. Decreasing in earning capacity, inability and economic dependency, health hazard, maladjustment, changing social values have a separate role in the connection of older abuse. Planned migration, awareness program implantations against elderly abuse and secured socioeconomic factors are suggested through this paper to lessen exposure to further neglecting of elderly climate migrant women in urban slums.
Academic Editor: Ian James Martins, Edith Cowan University, Australia.
Checked for plagiarism: Yes
Review by: Single-blind
Copyright © 2020 Karisma Amjad
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
As population ageing and gender differentials have become prominent issues in recent times, it is being argued that the interest in gender often focuses on inequalities that disadvantage women, while much of ageing research focuses on the economic and social vulnerability of older persons 1. Also found that the discourse related to population ageing and gender differentials asserted or implied that older women are universally more vulnerable to social, economic and health disadvantages than older men. In Bangladesh many older people spend their lives in poverty and ill health which is major risk for the elderly population. After a lifetime of deprivation, old age is likely to mean ill health, social isolation and poverty. Poverty and exclusion are the greatest threats to the well being of older people. This is especially true for older women, who suffer from multiple disadvantages resulting from biases to gender, widowhood and old age. Women, particularly widows, who are without living sons or who live alone, are considered to be particularly at risk of economic destitution, social isolation, poor health and death 2. 3. A Bangladeshi woman often enjoys power and authority if she happens to be head of the family. If this association is broken, her access to resources for care and sustenance is reduced, making her vulnerable. This risk increases for women who have no assets for survival, such as education, possession or social status 4. 5. The vulnerability when compounded by falling health, disability and widowhood makes the elderly women the most defenseless in the Bangladesh context 6. 7. 5.
Objectives of the Study
· To observe the socio-economic status of the study respondents.
· To explore the nature and extend of elderly women abuse.
· To find out the self-stated reasons of elderly women abuse.
Rationale of the Study
This study represents the measurement of mental stress status of climate migrant urban poor women slum dwellers in Dhaka city in Bangladesh context. Furthermore, these are some Rational which cannot ignore:
· This study will be more useful for academic purpose in worldwide.
· This research will be helpful for taking preventive measurement against climate migrant elderly women abuse and neglect.
· This study will be helpful for any of the family member to safeguard their older women from abuse and neglect.
The policy makers of Bangladesh may be benefited from this study for developing policy against abuse and neglect among climate migrant older women.
Many national and international researches have been conducted on elderly abuse and neglect. Recently, a few studies have examined issues, factors and consequences of the elderly abuse and neglect using empirical evidence based on living arrangements and health status.
In a study in 2010 examined about the socio-economic backdrops, living arrangements, health status and abuse of the women aged 60 years and older in the rural Naogaon district of Bangladesh are examined. The data were collected from seven villages by using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and the results show that an overwhelming majority of the elderly women in the age group 60-69 years who are widowed, illiterate, have no education and income, economically dependent, living with married children, unhealthy, suffer from arthritis related illness and are taking treatment from village doctors. Furthermore, the study shows that, nearly 35 percent elderly women are abused, mostly mentally abused due to poverty. Logistic regression analysis reveals the determinants of living arrangements, health status and abuse of the elderly women 8.
In another study in 2017 represented to collect qualitative facts concerning the nature of elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh and to find out the causes and impacts of this malpractice. The study categorized older people into ten broader classes and selected four old persons purposively under each category for an in-depth case study. In addition, Focus Group Discussion, Key Informants Interview and observational methods were also used to draw supplementary data. The results show that all old persons interviewed, irrespective of socio-economic status, came up against varying degrees of abuse and neglect by their families, relatives and communities that resulted in their physical ill-health and mental distress. Financial and physical abuses were found more frequent among poor and weaker sections, whereas psychological abuse appeared as severe among those belonging to the middle and affluent classes. Families having strong religious practices and a long tradition of taking care of the elderly were less subjected to elder mistreatment. As is revealed, along with various other factors, degradation of moral and religious values, new family structure and the lower socio-economic status of old people were associated with the maltreatment they faced. Socio-economic insecurity and a poor institutional mechanism for old persons cause a higher incidence of elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh, which calls for immediate action from all levels. Key words: ageing, elder abuse, Bangladesh, aged 9.
The Book Abuse of the elderly in Chapter 5 revealed that background the abuse of older people by family members, definition of elder abuse, the threat of violence in the United Republic of Tanzania, the extended of the problem, the risk factors for elder abuse, the consequences of elder abuse, and prevention of elder abuse 10.
An additional study in 2010 based on the data collected from 7 villages of rural areas under Naogaon district, about 36 km away from Rajshahi divisional town of Bangladesh. From all the unions of the Thana, a Union (9 Number Tintulia Union Parishad) was randomly selected and from this union 7 villages were selected by using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. All the elderly (743 elderly) persons aged 60+ years were interviewed during September 6 to September 16, 2007. The data were edited, compiled, computerized and processed by using SPSS 10.5 program. Among the elderly women group is the most likely victims of abuse. The study also brought to light that illiteracy, unhealthy physical condition, utmost economic dependence of the already poverty-stricken family makes the elderly susceptible to elder neglect and abuse. The overall findings seems to suggest close relationship of abuse of the elderly with their socio-economic and educational background and this piece of information needs to be scientifically utilized in developing suitable programs addressing the elderly of the developing countries as well as Bangladesh 11.
Most of the writers give importance on factors, issues and consequences behind elderly abuse and neglect and show how the problems affected the lives of the people of world and Bangladesh. Bangladeshi writers did not mention the climate change and migration also have some linkage between elderly women abuse and neglect in slum areas. Thus there is a research gap and as such this study has been planned. For this perspective, this paper study only climate migrant elderly women abuse and neglect in slum areas in Dhaka city to consider for up gradation and advancement of living.
The Main Research Method
It conducted both quantitative and qualitative types study. This study have been conducted through quantitative approach because of representing some specific point of view of their life in abuse and neglect. Besides, the study conducted through qualitative method because qualitative methods are often regarded as providing research data about people’s real life and situations which are more able to make sense of behavior within its wider context. In this research paper a case study of language and contexts that emphasizes the natural flow of older women social life.
The Research Site
Two Slums of Dhaka city where older women migrated for climate change have been selected as research area. General information have been collected from the Korail slums Mohakhali and Shahjadpur slums area of Dhaka. These two areas have been selected because of convenient of the researcher. The target groups of the respondents are the lower class older women who were migrated from their home land to Dhaka city because of any kinds of climate effects.
Location of the Study Area
The area of Jilppar slum located at Shahjadpur nearby Shajadpur Lake beside Manaratat International University. It is situated under Dhaka North City Corporation. Shahjadpur is a ward under number 18. Latitude and longitude of the Shahjadpur slum area is 23.791241and 90.42245 (Figure a).
Korail, one of the largest slums in Bangladesh, is located just opposite the BRAC Head Office in Dhaka. Home to around one lakh people, who include 28,000 voters, Korail Bosti is spread over 90 acres of government land in Mohakhali. People have been living there since 1990. It is also situated under Dhaka North City Corporation. Korail slum is a ward under number 20. Latitude and longitude of the Korail slum area is 23.784822 and 90.404326 (Figure b).
Population of the Study
In this research all older women who migrated because of climate change in Dhaka City from various palaces of Bangladesh have been selected as the population of the study. The respondents have been suffered different types of natural hazards including flood (e.g. river flood, urban flood and flash flood), cyclone and storm surges, drought, soil salinity, river bank erosion, tornadoes for their respective field about climate change effects.
Sampling of the Study
Apurposive sampling used to select two slums in Dhaka city. So that it has been easier and comfortable to run the study on these areas. Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling method and it occurs when “elements selected for the sample are chosen by the judgment of the researcher. Researchers often believe that they can obtain a representative sample by using a sound judgment, which will result in saving time and money”. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique in which researcher relies on his or her own judgment when choosing members of population to participate in the study. Purposive sampling method may prove to be effective when only limited numbers of people can serve as primary data sources due to the nature of research design and aims and objectives. A total of 50 participants have been interviewed. The respondents belonged to the age 60 years and above. A total of 2 respondents interviewed as an individual case for representing actual scenario of abuse and negligence of climate migrant elderly women in slum of Dhaka city.
Main Data Collection Technique
The information have been collected through the in-depth interview that complied with qualitative analysis. For this study, it observed physically and contact with selected cases. Primary data have been collected from selected samples through face to face interview using interview schedule and observation.
KII includes household’s socio-economic factors characterizing living conditions, physical environment, dietary practice and health outcome analyzed by applying statistical technique, frequency distribution.
Primary data have been gathered by using field study. The field study primarily offers a vulnerability survey of climate migrant of older women using interview schedule. Interviews have been conducted with families as well as key informants at certain points of the migration routes of climate migrants. KII (Key Informant Interview) have been used to collect information about respondents from their family members and neighbors.
A pre-tested, modified, semi structured, self-administrated interview schedule designed based on living condition of the climate migrant older women in Dhaka city.
Firstly the collected data from research area have been edited. Then it classified according to its characteristics. All respondents data outcome have been analyzed by applying statistical technique, frequency distribution. Collected data processed with the help of Excel (2016 version) and the data have been measured with numerical value against each item of the variable. For represent two special case, proper way of analyzing case study used to analyze data.
After analyzing some data have been presented in descriptive way and a quantity of data presented in statistical line of track. Data have been presented to use different data presentation such as multi variant table and figurers (pie chart, bar chart etc.).
The aim and purpose of the study were explained with the participants and then different questions were asked to them on the basis of that they expressed their response and comments. All the participants were given assurance of confidentiality before conducting interview. The interview was conducted with privacy as much as possible. Alongside these, the study also tries to level best to show respect to all the participants in the same manner and maintain local norms, values and believes in all respect.
In the part of building conceptual framework through the using of literature review and secondary source of data in this research there are some limitations in terms of ethical consideration. I didn’t able to get permission from the main author for using his or her book and works as a reference but I have tried to give proper credit by using citation of their name through APA style of referencing.
Analysis of the Study
The results description has been made with obtained data and presented that with tables, charts, diagrams and by other formats.
Level of Education
Based on survey data, only 16% of older women have no education in Korail slum and only 12% of elderly women have no education in Shahjadpur slum. However, 68% in Korail and 70% in Shahjadpur slum respondents have to do sign only (sign only clarify the respondents who can sign only their name, illiterate make clear that there have no education and no skill to do sign their name) and 10% respondents have some sort of primary education in Korail and 12% respondents have some sort of primary education in Shahjadpur slum. Besides, there have not found any of the respondents educated above SSC. Figure 1, Table 1.Table 1. Level of education of the respondents
|Level of education||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
|Primary (Class 1-5)||10%||12%|
|Secondary (Class 5-8)||4%||4%|
|Class 9- SSC||2%||2%|
Age of Marriage
|Age of marriage||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
Respondents Marital Status
|Marital status||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
Environmental Reasons for Migrating (through in-depth interviewees)
During the study it has been seen that 30% of the respondent migrated because of Cyclone and no agricultural work available during the off-season (Monga period). Among the respondents 20% of them migrated for the reason of river erosion. Figure 4, Table 4.Table 4. Environmental reasons for migrating (through in-depth interviewees)
|Environmental reasons||Korail Slum||Shahajadpur Slum|
|Sudden loss of their house and/or crops due to flooding||7%||18%|
|Drought and a lack of water for irrigation||5%||6%|
|High temperatures and erratic rainfall||2%||3%|
|No agricultural work available during the off-season (Monga period)||28%||28%|
Types of Migrants
|Types of migrants||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
|Migrated as a whole family||21||84%||20||80%|
Respondents Family Companion
|Family companion of the respondents||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
|Live with own Couple||5||20%||4||16%|
|Live with other family||15||60%||15||60%|
Respondents Involvement in Income or Job Status at Present
During the study time it has been found that most of them (72%) cannot do work due to their health condition of old age in Korail slum. However, 30% of older women do work at the present time in Korail slum. On the other hand, 68% respondents unemployee in Shahjadpur slum whereas 32% of respondents employed in Shahjadpur slum. Figure 7, Table 7.Table 7. Respondents involvement in income or job status at present
|Involvement in work||Korail Sluum||Shahjadpur Slum||TotalFrequency||Total Percentage|
Table 8. Respondents Family Income
Family income depends on so many aspects. According to survey data, 13% of respondent’s family in Korail slum and 15% of respondent’s family in Shahjadpur slum have income less than BDT 5000 (58.82 USD). On the other hand, only 37% in Korail slum and 35% in Shahjadpur slum of the households earned more than BDT10,000 (117.65 USD). In this study want to represent scenario of the earning of the family depends on two or more person. Figure 8, Table 8.Table 8. Respondents family income
|Family income||Family Income|
|Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
Respondents Occupation at Present
Among the respondents, the greatest percentage that is 57% of the respondents work as waste collector Shahjadpur slum. Other 43% respondents work as house maid in Shajadpur slum and vegetable seller in Korail slum. Rest of them have to do work as begging. Figure 9, Table 9.Table 9. Occupation of respondents at present
|Occupation of respondents||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
Respondents Income at Present
According to survey data, 57% of respondents (who were involved in work) have income around BDT 5000 (58.82 USD) at present and more or less 14% of both slum working elderly women income around BDT 1000-2000 (11.76 – 23.53 USD) in every month. But price of resent days high could not help to improve life standard by earning. Figure 10, Table 10.Table 10. Respondents income at present
|Income range of respondents||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
Rest of the Respondents (un-employee) Income at Present
|Income souse||Korail Slum||Shahjadpur Slum|
Nature of Abuse of Elderly Women
Women although scholars express a difference of opinion I the definition of the term “elder abuse” 12. 13. In developing countries elderly population forms a large and vulnerable group suffering from high level of physical, economical and social insecurity. Though there are great socio-economic variations within the elderly population which make the care for the elderly more complex and challenging, a consideration of factors personal, familial, economical combines together resulting in elder abuse 8.
Elderly Abuse According to their Nature
|Were they abuse?||Yes||No|
Abuser of the Respondents
In the study time it has been notices that respondents wanted to live with their family members. But because of negligence of their family members they try to separate from them even though in crisis period. They stated that they were more abused then male elderly. Because of no power in the family and some cases ignorance. Figure 13, Table 12.Table 13. Abuser of the respondents
|Abuser of the Respondents||Korail slum ( N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
During the study time it has been found that most of them neglected by family members in Korail (72%) and Shahjadpur slum (76%). From their statement it is focused that most of them abused by their family members, in some by their husband, their child and caregivers. Sometimes they were self-neglected because of frustration and in some case of ignorance.
Nature of Elderly Abuse
There are different types of abuse and neglect. The most common are physical, social, mental and financial. There are other types of neglect which called self-neglect with neglect the older person fail to meet their own physical, psychological and social needs.Table 14. Nature of elderly abuse
|Nature of Elderly abuse||Korail Slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur Slum (N=21)|
|Treatment related abuse||7||32%||8||38%|
Patterns of Financial Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
The elderly climate migrant women stated that they were abused financially because of family disorganization and financial crisis. Actually elderly women have no power and have no contribution for they family also another important reason for abuse and neglect. Figure 15, Table 15.Table 15. Patterns of financial abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of financial abuse and neglect||Korail Slum (N=22)||Shahajadpur Slum (N=21)|
|Impeding poverty Consumption||18||82%||17||81%|
|Forcible capture of land||7||32%||8||38%|
|Lack of interest towards fulfill Demands||21||95%||20||95%|
|Discriminate in getting old ageallowance||18||82%||18||86%|
According the survey, most of the respondents (both Shahjadpur and Korail slum =95%) are abused and neglected financially with the patterns of lack of interest towards fulfill their demands. 86% in Shshjadpur slum and 82% in Korail slum are affected financial abuse and neglect with the pattern of discriminate in getting old age allowance. 82% in Shshjadpur slum and 81% in Korail slum are impeding property consumption. Forcible capture of land and stealing money also other pattern of financial abuse and neglect for climate migrant elderly in Dhaka city slums.
Patterns of Physical Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Some of the respondents mentioned that they are physically abused and neglect by their near and dear ones. Most of the cases they are physically abused and neglected by their children. As a result some of them separated from their family and live alone. Figure 16, Table 16.Table 16. Patterns of physical abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of Physical Abuse and Neglect||Korail Slum (N=22)||Shahajadpur Slum (N=21)|
|Hitting without any cause||8||36%||7||33%|
Around 33% in Shahjadpur slum and 36% in Korail slum respondents faced physical abuse and neglect without hitting any reasons, 23% in Korail and 24% in Shahjadpur slum abused by shook. Slap, push and kick also other pattern of physical abuse and neglect for climate migrant elderly in Dhaka city slums.
Patterns of Psychological Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Most of the respondents mentioned that they feel loneliness, hinder from express opinion and unexpected behavior are the noticeable pattern of psychological abuse and neglect. They also faced devaluation, rebuke and threat to punishment as patterns of psychological abuse and neglect. Figure 17, Table 17.Table 17. Patterns of psychological abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of psychological abuse and neglect||Korail Slum (N=22)||Shahajadpur Slum (N=21)|
|Hinder from express opinion||20||91%||20||95%|
|Threat to punishment||3||14%s||3||14%23|
Patterns of Self-neglect
Elderly women are affected by different types of mental abuse and neglect and for that they are separated from their family and affected by self-neglect especially elderly women who were migrating after any king of disaster from their home land. Deprived situation motivated them to neglected by themselves because of their lack of knowledge and well-mannered attitudes towards their family members. Respondents of this study mentioned that for ignorance towards the family members, relatives and some of social people they abused and neglected themselves. Figure 18, Table 18.Table 18. Patterns of self-neglect
|Patterns of self-neglect||Korail Slum (N=22)||Shahajadpur Slum (N=21)|
|Separation from others||6||22%||2||10%|
|Angry for without any cause||4||18%||3||14%|
|Irregular food habit||2||9%||7||33%|
After analysis data, elderly climate migrant women faced different types of self neglect such as separation form others, depression, inferiority, angry for without any cause, health carelessness, and irregular food habit. Most of the respondents (Shahjadpur slum= 57%) (Korail Slum=36%) feel depression.
Health Complains Status at Present
|Health complains||Shahjadpur slum||Korail slum|
Diseases Faced by the Respondents
Elderly people suffer from various types of diseases. Fever/headache, asthma, gastric, weakness of eyesight, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac diseases and teeth problem and others is the common diseases in old age. Among them 84% in Korail slum and 80% in Shahjadpur slum have weakness of eyesight. Another acute disease in Korail slum 80% and Shajadpur slum76% have faced teeth problem. Figure 20, Table 20.Table 20. Diseases faced by the respondents
|Diseases||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur Slum (N=25)|
|Weakness of eyesight||21||84%||20||80%|
Information about Sectors of Treatment Place
In this study most of the elderly climate migrant women checks their health in government hospital, private hospital/doctors, dispensary, homeopathic. Sometimes used different types of religious term. (Those respondents who believe in religious term, they went to traditional healers. This study identified both religious and non-religious healing practices. The key religious healing practices reportedly included Kalami, Bhandai, and Spiritual Healing, whereas the non-religious healing practices included Sorcery, Kabiraji, and Home Medicine. Both patients and healers practiced self-medication at home with their indigenous knowledge. Kabiraji was widely practiced based on informal use of local medicinal plants in rural areas.
Healers in both Kalami and Bhandari practices resorted to religious rituals, and usually used verses of holy books in healing, which required a firm belief of patients for the treatment to be effective. Sorcerers deliberately used their so-called supernatural power not only to treat a patient but also to cause harm to others upon secret request. The spiritual healing reportedly diagnosed and cured the health problems through communication with sacred spirits. Although the fee for diagnosis was small, spiritual healing required different types of treatment instruments, which made the treatment implicitly expensive). Even some of the respondents can not want ro go to doctor because of their financial condition. Maximum respondent 56% in Korail slum and 52% of Shahjadpur slum check their health problems in government hospitals. Figure 21, Table 21.Table 21. Information about sectors of treatment place
|Sectors of treatment place||Korail slum||Shahjadpur slum|
|Religious term (Kabiragi)||4||16%||5||20%|
Patterns of Health Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
When elderly women affected any kinds of diseases to do not want to make any crisis towards their family members and relatives. Respondents of this study neglected pattern are unwilling to buy medicine, neglect towards disease, reluctant to attend on, reluctant to go to doctor and forcible work respectively. Most of the elderly climate migrant women reported multiple health problems. When they faced disease they were unable to take care of themselves, they depends on others and neglected by their family, relatives and sometimes people of society by forcible work during illness, reluctant to attend on, to buy medicine and to go to doctor. Figure 22, Table 22.Table 22. Patterns of health related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of health related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Negligence towards disease||16||73%||15||73%|
|Reluctant to go to doctor||20||91%||18||82%|
|Unwilling to buy medicine||15||68%||15||68%|
|Reluctant to attend on||19||86%||18||82%|
Patterns of Food Habit of the Respondents
The real scenario of the slum of Dhaka city is in poverty, superstitious, lack of awareness and lack of knowledge about balance nutrition and proper health care among the people. Lack of financial support they could not eat fish. Meat, milk and fruits regularly. Most of the respondents (100%) take rice and (92% in Korail slum and 84% in Shahjadpur slum) vegetable as their daily food. Sometimes they take bread (56% in Korail and 64% in Shahjadpur). Some of them have can take egg (48% in Korail and 40% in Shahjadpur), if its possible to manage from their money. Figure 23, Table 23.Table 23. Patterns of food habit of the respondents
|Patterns of food habit||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
Patterns of Food Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Now a days, pattern of family structure changed. Eldely women are neglected through providing of insufficuent, unhygienic and innutritious food. They are also neglected through seving nesserry food in saparate place place and they also faced food discrimination. Maximum respondents get food supply unhygienic (in Shahjadpur =90% and Korail =95%). They also mentioned that they get food insufficient in Shahjadpur slum 95% and Korail slum 91%. They also faced various patterns of food related abuse are late serving of meal, food discrimination, away from serving time and serving insufficient food. Figure 24, Table 24.Table 24. Patterns of food related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of food related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Separation for food||8||36%||8||38%|
|Away from serving time||5||23%||6||29%|
|Late serving of meal||1||5%||1||5%|
Patterns of Accommodation Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
No one can live without accomodation. After disaster the have a great lose of economic and financial. After coming dhaka city the bound to live in small house with low facilities because of the bound to live in cottage with low facilities because of their financial crisis. As a result after coming Dhaka elderly women faced discrimination for proper accommodation. Above them 68% in Shshjdpur slum and 67% in Korail slum have not sufficient facilities for accommodation. Some of them 48% in Shahjadpur slum and 41% in Korail slum live in balcony. 52% of respondents in Shahjadpur slum and 45% of respondents in Korail slum live in other people’s house. Figure 25, Table 25.Table 25. Patterns of accommodation related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of costume related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Unwilling to give cloths||5||23%||5||24%|
|Insufficiency to protect cold||13||59%||12||57%|
Patterns of Costume Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents (Costume indicate cloth)
In some cases there have not good relation of elderly women with their sister in lows. As a result their son’s can not ful fill their demand. From survey data, 90% in shahjadpur slum amd 91% in korail slum have insufficient cloths. 76% in Shshkadpur slum and 77% in Korail slum have low quality cloths. 57% in Shahjadpur slum and 59% in Korail slum respondents have cloths insufficiency to protect cold. Some of them have old and useless cloths and some of them have faced problem that their family members unwilling to give cloths. Figure 26, Table 26.Table 26. Patterns of costume related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of accommodation related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
|Other people’s house||10||45%||11||52%|
Recreation Related Information of the Respondents
Elderly women naturally like to spend ther time with family members for mental satisfaction. Respondents of this study mentioned that the recreational facilities especially television, radio, religious work and gossip with neibours are insufficient. In some cases they have not any facilities for their recreation. Most of the respondents in the study area (84% in Korail slum and 80% in Shahjadpur slum) spend their time in house and sometimes gossip with the neighbour. Figure 27, Table 27.Table 27. Recreation related information of the respondents
|Recreation elements||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
Patterns of Recreation Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Now a days, joint family is broken and the single family is increasing day by day. So that relative and childrens of the respondents do not priority their parents recreation related demand. Among the respondents (95% in Shahjadpur slum and 94% in Korail slum) family members are unwilling to take them outside. On the other hand, (76% in shahjadpur slum and 77% in korail slum) family members disappointed to their parents from watching religious program on TV. Some times they face veto from gossiping and reluctant to provide recreational tools. Figure 28, Table 28.Table 28. Patterns of recreation related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Patterns of recreation related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Disappoint from watching religious program||17||77%||16||76%|
|Veto from gossiping||7||32%||8||38%|
|Unwilling to take them outside||21||94%||20||95%|
|Reluctant to provide recreational tools||9||41%||8||38%|
Causes of Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Elederly climate migrant respondents of the study area are abused and neglected because of family violence or family disorganization. Almost 90% in Shahjadpur slum and 91% in Korail slum respondents of the study area abused and neglected because of family violence. Elderly abused and neglected in the study area because of changing of family pattern, poverty, family crisis, migration to the home land, dependency on others, chronic illness, inability of work, unbalanced property distribution and others. Figure 29, Table 29.Table 29. Causes of abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Causes of abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Changes of family pattern||16||73%||15||71%|
Causes of Health Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
According to the respondent opinion there have various causes of health related abused and neglect. Some of them said they faced gret crisis for health related abuse and neglect. Some respondent mention join families are creasts many issues. Relatives of elderly women do not want to spend their money for health, some of the have financial problems, some of them think that its excessive expenditure or not emphasis or waist of time or as a burden. Most of them (91% in Shahjadpur slum and 90% in Korail slum) faced the problem because of financial crisis. Figure 30, Table 30.Table 30. Causes of health related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Causes of health related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Waste of time||3||14%||4||19%|
Causes of Food Related Abuse and Neglect
It has been seen that the 95% respondents in the both study area Shahjapur and Korail slum faced food related issues abused and neglect because of financial problem. They also faced abused and neglected in some cases other issues are thinking of relatives of respondent’s excessive expenditure. Some times their not emphasis or carelessness to the elderly. Figure 31, Table 31.Table 31. Causes of food related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Causes of household related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Member’s reluctance to live together||4||19%||5||24%|
Causes of Household Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Among the respondents 77% in Korail and 86% in Shahjadpur faced house hold related problem because of financial problem and accommodation problem. 95% in Shahjadpur Slum and 86 % in Korail slum respondents faced household related abuse and neglect as a result of family disorganization. Sometimes they faced household related abused and neglected reasons of member’s reluctance to live together and illness of them and any other family members. Figure 32, Table 32.Table 32. Causes of household related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Quantity of fulfillment (Korail slum)||Financial||Treatment||Costume||Food|
|Not at all||7||28%||7||28%||8||32%||4||16%|
Causes of Costume Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
Acceding to the study financial crisis is acute. The reason behind costume related abused and neglected is not emphasis and unwilling ness about giving costume as much they need. Some of them replied that their relatives think that to fulfill their costume need is an excessive expenditure. Figure 33, Table 33.Table 33. Causes of costume related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Causes of costume relatedabuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
Causes of Recreation Related Abuse and Neglect of the Respondents
It has been seen that the 81% in Shahjadpur slum and 82 % in Korail slum respondents in the faced recreation related issues abused and neglect because other family members want to watch different programs with not match with elderly chose. They also faced abused and neglected 81% in shahjadpur slum and 82% in Korail slum because not giving emphasis to the elderly recreational issues. Sometimes they get negative impression and loss of dignity from others. Figure 34, Table 34.Table 34. Causes of recreation related abuse and neglect of the respondents
|Causes of recreation related abuse and neglect||Korail slum (N=22)||Shahjadpur slum (N=21)|
|Watching different programs||18||82%||17||81%|
|Loss of dignity||3||14%||3||14%|
Respondents Demands Fulfillment by their Family Members (N=25+25)
A) Quantity of Fulfillment (Korail slum)
In this study, elderly climate migrate women in Korail slum faced abused and neglected in various ways. Sometimes they seems like burden for their relatives. The respondents of Korail slum mentioned that 36%, 32% and 28% financial demands fulfillment by their family members fully, partially and not at all individually. Figure 35, Table 35.Table 35. a. Respondents (Korail Slum = 25) demands fulfillment by their family members
|Quantity of fulfillment (Korail slum)||Financial||Treatment||Costume||Food|
|Not at all||7||28%||7||28%||8||32%||4||16%|
· Among the respondents treatment needs fulfill by their family members 40% fully, 32% partially and 28% not at all according to their demands.
· Family members fulfill their costume related fully 44%, partially 36% and 32% not at all.
· Respondents family members try to fulfill their food related issues 24%fully, 36% partially and 16% not at all.
B) Quantity of Fulfillment (Shahjadpur slum)
In this study, elderly climate migrate women in Shahjadpur slum faced abused and neglected in various ways. Sometimes they seems like burden for their relatives. The respondents of Korail slum mentioned that 36%, 28% and 24% financial demands fulfillment by their family members fully, partially and not at all individually.
Among the respondents treatment needs fulfill by their family members 40% fully, 32% partially and 24% not at all according to their demands.
Family members fulfill their costume related fully 32%, partially 32% and 28% not at all.
Respondents family members try to fulfill their food related issues 32%fully, 28% partially and 12% not at all.
Patterns of Family and Power of Decision Making Process
48%, 16%, 28%, 8% climate migrant elderly women have no power, less power, moderate level of power, high level of power and 0% means there have no one elderly climate migrant women in Korail slum who can hold very high level on the basis of their family. Figure 36, Table 36.Table 36. Patterns of family and power of decision making process
|Level of power||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
On the other hand, 56% climate migrant elderly women have no power in Shahjapur Slum, 12% have less power and 24% have moderate level of power, besides 4% of respondents have high and very high level of power in their extended family where have not present any male elderly person.
Pattern of Different Types of Support
According to the study, the respondents noticed that they do not get societal support (28% in Korail and 32% in Shahjadpur) as much the desire. Besides, they did not get proper benefit from the Government (36% in Shahjadpur and 32% in Korail) and Non-government support (24% in Shahjadpur and 20% in Korail) in proper way. Figure 37, Table 37Table 37. Pattern of different types of support
|Pattern of support||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
Opinion of the Respondents to Uplift the Problems
In old age the people want to company and want to share their view to others. But they do not get company whatever they desire. They also worried about their physical condition and security. As result they have some opinion for uplift their life. Among them 88% in Korail slum and 84% in Shahjadpur slum respondent thing that family support is essential to uplift their life. On the other hand, (72% in Korail and 68% in Shahjadpur) respondents opinion to increase societal support, (68% in Korail and 72% in Shashjadpur) respondents think that need government support. Besides, (80% in Korail and 76% in Shahjadpur) respondents opinion that need to increase no government support to uplift their life. Figure 38, Table 38. Figure c, Figure d.Table 38. Opinion of the respondents to uplift the problems
|Uplift support||Korail slum (N=25)||Shahjadpur slum (N=25)|
Mrs Ratna Khatun is about 75 years old migrated from Burguna district. She had 4 sons and 2 daughters. Two of her sons washed away by the flooding in 1988. They had to suffer a lot because her poultry, livestock, house everything was washed away. She had a great economy and property loss. Though she got some relief but it was not sufficient for her family. After that she leaved her place permanently with her husband and two of sons and two of her daughters. After coming to Dhaka they stayed to live at Shahjadpur Jilpar slum in a rental house. Her husband had late five years after coming Dhaka. All of her son and daughter already got married and live in other place and never take care of her. Last few years she leaves alone and did not do regularly work as a maid. She is poor, but she is not included in government old age allowances. She suffers from different types of physical problems such as fever, less eye-sight, reduced hearing power and other disease. Every time people threat her to remove house from there. Nibours escaped her. If someone gives her food, only then she eats.
Nasima Begum is a 60 years older women migrated from Barishal district. She had two sons. She had depressing experiences and affected by cyclone occurred Sidr in 2007. Sidr was the most catastrophic disaster she had ever seen. After Sidr they try to recover their house hold situation but they cannot get better which make them push to go to leave their land. After coming Dhaka, her husband died and she stared working as a maid in 4/5 houses in a day. Suddenly she needs to get operation to remove her uterus. After that she could not capable to do work properly. One of her son started slap when she fail to earn money. Actually she had no power and have no contribution for family. Her another son mentally abused with using neglecting words. Her elder son and daughter in law did not give cloth whatever she need and did not provide healthy food on time.
Disaster happened before long days in their life but effects of its coexistence with life still now in old age.
Because of lower classes, they are unable to take various preventive measures before disaster. They try to survive how long they can stay their home land. When they are unable to live on, they start being migrated towards the city.
In this article researcher have defined elderly abuse as harm effected to an older person by someone in a position of trust who may have control over the victim. This includes physical abuse, mental and psychological abuse and economic abuse. Physical abuse occurs in the form of hitting, pushing, slapping and tie up, sores, fractures, painful burns, sprains cuts. Mental abuse include repeated and constant use of threat, embarrassment, caution and any other form of mental unkindness leading to physical, bad mental heartbreak (treating the elderly like a child, censure threatening, violence and isolation leading to fare, depression, sleeplessness and anorexia). Economic abuse occurs in the form of failure food, shelter, clothing, medical care, and personal care leading to malnutrition, depression confusion and life threatening health harms.
The elderly climate migrant women stated that abuse and neglect increase because of family disorganization and financial crisis. Actually elderly women have no power and have no contribution for they family also another important reasones for abuse and neglect.
Elderly people are having an increasing threat for diseases and illness due to proper diet with nutritious food. Children and relatives of elderly women do not want to spend their money for healthy food or any kind of health care service like dental or eye care cost because of financial problem and take them as a burden, they think the excessive expenditure and waste of time. Aa a result the respondents become frustrated and their health is damaged day by day.
1. According to elderly migrant women physical fitness and skill should be create employment opportunities.
2. For improving financial solvency should be ensured through government old age allowance program.
3. Fulfillment of their basic needs need be involve them in social program by local admiration and NGO.
4. To provide the services for reacting and social activities.
5. To accompany older women need to increase relation with them.
6. To use their own properties should be proper low formulated and implemented that are authorized for them.
7. To rise community awareness through effective social education which can stimulate discussion, debate and engagement for the prevention of education.
8. Supportive Adaptation measure of climate change help to make planned migration of climate induce displacement.
9. To aggravate elderly abuse and neglect, new policy should be formulated and reformed with the Nation Policy on Aging in proper way.
10. To update of ageing takes place within the context of family members, kin, neighbours, friends, work associates and the state after climate migration.
11. To reduce elderly abuse and neglect government should be established old home in the district where they stayed after migration.
12. Government, Non-government and Community support should increase for the betterment of older people of stayed area.
13. GO and NGOs should take infrastructure development and income generating activities for older women in the climate affected areas.
14. Local administration should take strong initiatives to avoid the events of torturing women and other unexpected events during disasters.
15. Older women are now the senior citizen of our country. So, proper honor should be given to them.
Elderly is the most common and universal reality and it is the last step of life cycle and none can avoid this stage. It is occurs in all members of population and it is a continuous process and is an obligatory segment in human life. The family traditionally was valued as the cradle of love where family needs including those of the aged were met. Today, it is increasingly under attack and its powers and significance being daily eroded in a society driven by materialism and competition. This attack on the family institution means a decline in the value, support and care of the elderly, thereby leaving them prone to destitution and abuse and they faced diverse sorts of crisis in their daily life and leads their life with hardship. That neglect and abuse of the elderly is a menacing problem and increasing being felt by many people can hardly be defined of. Now elder abuse and neglect is the widespread issue in the world especially country like Bangladesh. It is a common social scenario in the study area and for that to reduce their abuse and neglect proper policies for the better aging population in the study areas should be taken into consideration.