Saudi Arabia is rich in Juniperusprocera Hochst. ex Endl (Cupressaceae) as a medicinal plant. Its known as Arar, its present southwards, KSA. It's used as traditional medicine in the southwestern, KSA. The aim was according to "Saudi Arabian Customs" in using wild-plant extract for treatment and prevention of infectious-pathogens. That was to use Juniperusprocerafrom Ranyah, KSA to eliminate infectious-pathogens that were isolated from patients in the same area. This was the use may reduce the use of chemicals, as well it may be an alternative to chemotherapy. Practice included preparation of wild-plant extract, preparation of infectious-pathogens, interaction to wild-plant extract, and direct total cell count by "Bread Test". Juniperusprocera one crude concentration killed all infectious-pathogens during one day. Lower Juniperusprocera crude extract concentrations eliminated infectious-pathogens within more than one day. The mean number of dead sells / mL of Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp, and Streptococcus pyogenes were (84.9 / mL, 87.0 / mL, and 77.8 / mL). The mean percent of dead cells were (80.0%, 82.0%, and 73.4%). The meannumber of dead sells / mL of Salmonella sp., Shigella sp, and Escherichia coli were (72.6 / mL, 76.1 / mL, and 79.0 / mL). The mean percent of dead cells were (68.5%, 71.8%, and 74.5%). The mean number of Candida albicans dead sells / mL was 69.3 / mL, the mean percent of dead cells was 65.4%. It was concluded that found from the results, the Juniperusprocera extract was preferred "Saudi Arabian Customs" to be used in three quarter and one crude concentration, as the infectious-pathogens eliminating within one day. It was recommended that the Juniperusprocera extract will be used for herbal treatment according to "Saudi Arabian Customs". That will be remark and follow-up through the "Official Herbal Treatment Dept.". That will appropriate the doses will estimate for each patient to eliminate and protect against the infectious-pathogens.
Academic Editor: Andrei Alimov, Leading researcher (preclinical studies), Docent (academic teaching) Research Center of Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia.
Checked for plagiarism: Yes
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Copyright © 2023 Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Saudi Arabia is rich in Juniperusprocera Hochst. ex Endl (Cupressaceae) as a medicinal plant 1. Its known as Arar, its present southwards, KSA 2. It's used as traditional medicine in the southwestern, KSA 3. It's widely present in Al-Baha, used in treating pharyngitis, cold, gastritis, and wound healing 4. As well it is wide distributed in Asir and Hijaz mountains, KSA, its essential oils, had anti-infectious microbial action 5. It considers in KSA a medicinal plant, used usually to wound healing 2. This essential oil are alkanes, monoterpene alcohols or lactones 6. Also, δ-3-carene as (7–30%) as well α-pinene (31–63%) 5. As well has abieta-7-13-diene, isocupressic acid, ferruginol zcommunic, 4 epi-abietol, sugiol acid, and totarol 7. Leaves, also vital oil has lignan β-peltatin, deoxy-podophyllotoxin, isocupressic acid, zcommunic acid, totarol and sugiol 8, 9. Totarol had action on infectious-pathogens 10. Phenolic compounds had anti-infectious microbial inhibitory action 11. They had many anti-infectious microbial, and anti-infectious mycobacterial compounds 7. The phenolic, flavonoid and totarol had strong anti-infectious bacteria and anti-infectious candida activity 11. The vital oil had anti-infectious bacterial activity 12. The leaves extract from Al-Baha had the highest anti-infectious bacterial activity against Gram-positive infectious bacteria and treated wound healing 2. The extract had anti-infectious bacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus11. Also, essential oil had strong fungicidal activity against yeasts, yeast-like fungi and dermatophytes 12. Water extracts had anti-infectious candida action against Candida albicans11. The extract had higher anti-infectious fungal in regulatory the fungi growth 13.
The aim was according to "Saudi Arabian Customs" in using wild-plant extract for treatment and prevention of infectious-pathogens. That was to use Juniperusprocerafrom Ranyah, KSA to eliminate infectious-pathogens that were isolated from patients in the same area. This was the use may reduce the use of chemicals, as well it may be an alternative to chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
Preparation of wild-plant extract: The leaves of Juniperusprocera were collected and were classified from the Ranyah, KSA, at the flowering time. They were prepared to produce the boiling water extract according to the Saudi Arabian customs. Five grams of the leaves were simmered into two hundred and fifty mL of purified water. The boil water was filtered, the gradual dilution was made using distilled water to (1/4 crude, 1/2 crude, 3/4 crude, and 1 crude) 14
Preparation of infectious-pathogens: They were obtained from the laboratory after diagnosis, isolation and identification. They were included wound causes (Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp.). Tonsillitis cause was Streptococcus pyogenes. Gastroenteritis causes were (Salmonella sp., and Shigella sp.). Urinary tract infection cause was Escherichia coli. Oral and vagina candidiasis causes were Candida albicans. Activation of them were by culturing on "Mueller Hinton Broth"; (Lab. M. Ltd., UK)for 18-24 hour at 35-37 ºC. Theywere attuned to 106 Living cell / mL for exposure to wild-plant extract graduated dilutions 15.
Interaction to wild-plant extract: The microtitration plates were used for mixing the fixed infectious-pathogens suspensions and the wild-plant extract graduated dilutions. The microtitration plates were incubated at room temperature for the following times (overnight (12-18 hour), and one day) 16
Direct total cell count by "Bread Test": The degraded slide was used, a loop full was placed from each microtitration plate well. The film was fixed and was simple stained then was washed. The cells were counted in ten microscopic fields. The following laws were applied to calculate the number and percent of dead cells.
Number of dead cells / mL = *106 - (Mean cells in ten fields X *100 X *5000).
*106: Basic living cells / mL.
*100: Volume of one loop full.
*5000: Constant Standard Numbers.
Percent of dead cells = (Number of dead cells / *106) X 100. 17
Data analysis: The results were designed via "IBM Simple Statistics"; (IBM, Armonk, NY, United States) 18.
Results and Discussions
Number of dead cells / mL and percent of dead cells after interaction to wild-plant extract: Table (1 & 2) observed Juniperusprocera one crude concentration killed all infectious-pathogens during one day. Lower Juniperusprocera crude extract concentrations eliminated infectious-pathogens within more than one day. Only three Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp, and Streptococcus pyogenes were eliminated by concentration of Juniperusprocera extract three quarters crude during one day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
The effects were different on the infectious-pathogens, the most affected were Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The mean number of dead sells / mL were (84.9 / mL, 87.0 / mL, and 77.8 / mL) respectively. The mean percentage of dead cells were (80.0%, 82.0%, and 73.4%) respectively. They were most affected by the Juniperusprocera extract at all concentrations were completely eliminated by concentration of three quarters of crude before other infectious-pathogens 8, 9, 10, 11.
The less affected were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp, also Escherichia coli. The mean number of dead sells / mL were (72.6 / mL, 76.1 / mL, and 79.0 / mL) respectively. The mean percent of dead cells were (68.5%, 71.8%, and 74.5%) respectively. They were less pretentious by the Juniperusprocera extract at all concentrations were completely eliminated by concentration of one crude 8, 9, 10, 11.
The more less affected was Candida albicans, the mean number of dead sells / mL was 69.3 / mL. The mean percent of dead cells was 65.4%. They were more less affected by the extract at all concentrations was completely eliminated by Juniperusprocera extract concentration of one crude 11, 12, 13.
Through the results, were originated the concentrated extract was more powerful to eliminate all infectious-pathogens within one day. The lowest concentrated extract took more than one day to completely eliminate infectious-pathogens 8, 9, 10, 11. (Table 1) (Table 2).Table 1. Number of dead cells / mL after interaction to wild-plant extract
|Item||1/4 Crude||1/2 Crude||3/4 Crude||1 Crude||X̄ Mean|
|Overnight||1 Day||Overnight||1 Day||Overnight||1 Day||Overnight||1 Day|
|Item||1/4 Crude||1/2 Crude||3/4 Crude||1 Crude||X̄ Mean|
|Overnight||1 Day||Overnight||1 Day||Overnight||1 Day||Overnight||1 Day|
Juniperusprocera is usual in the southwest of the KSA. The "Saudi Arabian Customs" use extract is still in line with "Ancient Arab Customs" to treat infectious-pathogens. That is for reducing use of medicines and decreasing the treatment costs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
However, it is necessary to healthy treated evaluate the extracts through the "Pharmacy Branch" for safe herbal therapeutic use. That is in order to rapidity recovery from infectious-pathogens and do not affect the patient’s health 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
It was concluded that found from the results, the Juniperusprocera extract was preferred "Saudi Arabian Customs" to be used in three quarter and one crude concentration, as the infectious-pathogens eliminating within one day.
It was recommended that the Juniperusprocera extract will be used for herbal treatment according to "Saudi Arabian Customs". That will be remark and follow-up through the "Official Herbal Treatment Dept.". That will appropriate the doses will estimate for each patient to eliminate and protect against the infectious-pathogens.
Thanks, to the farmers were signed the Juniperusprocera plant area.
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