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Research Article | Open Access
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    Efficacy of Phytochemical Constituents of Castor Essential oil Towards the Mucor-Mycotic Mold Cunninghamella Bertholletiae

    Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul 1     Muaadh Badr Saeed 2     Areej Dawoud 3     Tasneem Mohammed 3     Kayamkani Abedulla Khan 4     Abdul Rahman Ikbal 3     Aejaz Abdullatif Khan 3     S.M. Shakeel Iqubal 3      

    1Faculty of Microbiology and Immunology, Ibn Sina National College of Medical Sciences, Al Mahjar Street: 31906, Jeddah 21418, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    2Medicine Program, Ibn Sina National College of Medical Sciences, Al Mahjar Street: 31906, Jeddah 21418, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    3Department of General Science, Ibn Sina National College of Medical Sciences, Al Mahajar Street: 31906, Jeddah 21418, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    4Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacology, IbnSina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Abstract

    The aim of this experiment is to study the efficacy of phytochemical constituents of Castor essential oil towards the mucor-mycotic mold Cunninghamella bertholletiae.The standard chemical analytical methods were used for the rapid study of the phytochemical constituents responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of the procured castor essential oil. The standard antimicrobial assay technique employed to study the comparative values of the efficacy of the procured castor essential oil with that of the standard antifungal chemical agents against the clinical isolates obtained from the immune suppressed patients samples of Cunninghamella bertholletia mold mucor-mycotic infections. The best susceptibility values recorded in the standard antifungal agents against the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae was with Amphotericin B showing the average zone of inhibition diameter of 20.66 mm with the average MIC value of, 1.66 (µ/ml) but the antimicrobial assay results for the Castor essential oil showed better values with an average disc diffusion of 22.44mm zone of inhibition diameter with average MIC value of 1.72 µ/ml .This study has shown that the phytochemical compounds present in the Castor essential oil proves to be more an effective alternative antifungal substance towards the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae.

    Received 09 Jul 2020; Accepted 21 Jul 2020; Published 25 Jul 2020;

    Academic Editor:Zhe-Sheng Chenz, Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, St. John’s University, United States.

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by:Single-blind

    Copyright©  2020 Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul, et al.

    License
    Creative Commons License    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul, Muaadh Badr Saeed, Areej Dawoud, Tasneem Mohammed, Kayamkani Abedulla Khan et al. (2020) Efficacy of Phytochemical Constituents of Castor Essential oil Towards the Mucor-Mycotic Mold Cunninghamella Bertholletiae. Journal of New Developments in Chemistry - 3(1):1-11.
    Download as RIS, BibTeX, Text (Include abstract )
    DOI10.14302/issn.2377-2549.jndc-20-3484

    Introduction

    The mucor - mycosis infections one of the emerging potential dangerous infections among the immune-suppressed patients undertaking treatment for the leukemia, or diabetes with a high mortality rate ranging from 96% for disseminated mucor mycos,76% for pulmonary infections and 46% for synovial infections1, 2, 3. The mortality rate depends upon the condition of the patient and the site of infection. The mucor - mycosis was formerly known as zygomycosis which are rare fungal infections targeting the immuno compromised host among the humans 4, 5. In the recent past due to the abuse of antibiotic usage ignoring the constant alarming alert protocols of the WHO, these types of infections are paying way as a potential emerging threat to the human lives. The mucor-mycotic infections were due to the mucormycotic saprophytic fungal molds of the order Mucorales belonging to the family Mucaraceae6, 7, 8. The most common causative agents for these type of mucor –mycotic infections were species from the Mucor, Absida, Rhizopus and Cunninghamella. The rhinocerebral mucor-mycosis along with the cutaneous mucor- mycosis and the pulmonary mucor-mycosis were frequently found with the inhalation of spores of the Cunninghamella bertholletia mold which are heat resistant up to 500C posing a potential threats these opportunistic fungal infections are becoming common among the immune suppressed individuals9, 10. The spores of the mold Cunninghamella bertholletia been transported through the blood to the different parts of the human body causing the necrosis of the tissue among the immune suppressed patients. The infection of the eye ulceration or disfiguration of the face were also reported along with the gastrointestinal infections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Though, the standard of antifungal-based therapy for Cunninghamella bertholletia infections is available for the treatment of this mold, only 33% of the recovery rate recorded. Hence, the need of the hour is to find an alternative potential prophylaxis therapy by revoking the forgotten ancient natural herbal medicine remedy to support the modern antifungal therapy in the treatment of the Cunninghamella bertholletia mold infections 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. There are versatile of natural herbal products in the form of essential oils were used in the ancient medicine in the treatment of various dangerous pathogens of bacterial, fungal, and viral infections to a great results 11, 12, 13. This study is focused on the isolation and purification of the clinically procured aseptic samples of the fungal mold Cunninghamella bertholletia from the immune suppressed patients and to check its susceptibility with the efficacy of one such essential oils. The essential oil chosen for this study was Castor essential oil procured from the local market. The castor essential oil been extracted from the beans of the Ricinus communis belonging to the perennial flowering plant of Euphorbiaceae spurge family 14, 15, 16. The castor essential oil contains a rich source of phenolic compounds along with the other chemical constituents which possess to be a great antimicrobial agent14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and qualifies for this study. In this study the efficacy of the procured castor oil from the local market was tested against the clinical isolates obtained from the immune suppressed patients samples of Cunninghamella bertholletia mold mucor-mycotic infections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. The standard chemical analytical methods were used for the rapid study of the phytochemical constituents responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of the procured castor essential oil. The standard antimicrobial assay technique employed to study the comparative values of the efficacy of the procured castor essential oil with that of the standard antifungal chemical agents against the clinical isolates obtained from the immune suppressed patients samples of Cunninghamella bertholletia mold mucor-mycotic infections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

    Materials and Methods

    Materials

    Castor essential oil procured from Jeddah local market, clinical skin scrape samples from the patient, Sabaraud's Dextrose agar, potassium hydroxide, peptone, lacto phenol. Standard antibiotics and standard Hi-Media were used. All the chemicals used during this investigation were of analytical grade.

    Isolation and Purification of Cunninghamella Bertholletiae

    The clinical sample from the patients was collected by employing the aseptic scraping technique and was inoculated on a sterile Sabaraud’s dextrose agar plate and incubated at 45ºC for 24-48 hours to observe the fungal mold rapidly growing white to tannish-gray color loose cottony colonies. The colonies mature upon further incubation for 96 hours 19, 20, 21. The high temperature incubation at 45ºC, the heat resistant Cunninghamella bertholletiae gets isolated from the other species of Cunninghamella which are all heat sensitive7, 8, 9, 10. The potassium hydroxide and lacto phenol test was performed to observe the mold hyphae under microscope by employing the wet mount technique as the confirmatory test. The microscopic observation reveals the sporangiophores, terminal vesicles with nonseptate or sparsely septate broad hyphae and the presence of oval shaped sporangioles with the sporangiospores with tuberculate projections4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

    Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test

    The antimicrobial susceptibility test for the isolated clinical specimens of Cunninghamella bertholletiae were evaluated for the efficacy of the standard synthetic chemical antifungal agents by performing the latest rapid e-test methodology where the clinical isolates were inoculated on Sabaraud’s dextrose agar plates separately and e-test plastic strips for the respective antibiotics were impregnated and incubated at 45ºC overnight to visualize the zone and ellipse and the results were tabulated by interpreting the observed results for the interaction of the ellipse as the Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC) whereas the zone as the susceptibility of the antibiotic towards the mold 3, 4, 5, 22. The traditional standard antibiotic assay methods such as Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was employed to observe the susceptibility of the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae the standard disc prepared from the Castor essential oil extract where the mold isolates were inoculated separately on the Sabaraud’s dextrose agar plates along with the impregnated discs for 24 hours at 45ºC to observe the zone formation determining the sensitivity of the mold towards the disc22, 23, 24, 25. The results were tabulated and interpreted. The MIC values along with Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) values for the efficacy antimicrobial activity of the Castor essential oil towards the mold was estimated by performing the standard tube dilution method where the clinical isolates were inoculated separately in the different sets of dilutions of the essential oil in the peptone water and incubated for 24 hours at 45ºC to observe the no turbidity determining the sensitivity of the mold towards the acid 22, 23, 24, 25. The last dilution with turbidity determines the MIC value of the acid towards the mold. The results were tabulated and interpreted. The MFC was determined by inoculating each dilution of MIC dilutions onto the separate agar plates for each clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae for the MIC dilutions separately. The inoculated plates were incubated for 24 hours at 45ºC to observe the no growth determining the sensitivity of the mold towards the Castor essential oil. The first dilution with no growth determines the MFC of the essential oil towards the fungal mold. The results were tabulated interpreted.

    Phyto-Chemical Analysis of the Castor Essential Oil

    The phyto-chemical properties analysis of the Castor essential oil procured from the local market was determined by the following methodologies14, 15, 16, 17, 18.

    Biochemical Analysis for Alkaloids

    Mayer’s Test

    Castor essential oils were mixed with a drop of mercuric chloride and potassium iodide respectively resulting in the formation of a creamy substance indicating the presence of alkaloids.

    Wagner’s Test

    A drop of Castor essential oil was mixed with a drop of potassium iodide and iodine resulting in the formation of a reddish brown precipitate which indicates the presence of alkaloids in the oil.

    Biochemical Analysis for Reducing Sugar

    Fehling’s Test

    2 ml of Fehling's reagents A and B were mixed with the Castor essential oil in a test tube and heated slightly to observe brick red color indicating the presence of reducing sugar.

    Benedict’s Test

    In a test tube 2 ml of Benedict’s reagent was treated with the Castor essential oil and heated gently heated to observe the formation of orange red precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugar

    Biochemical Analysis for Steroids

    Salkowski’s Test

    TheCastor essential oils were mixed with 2ml of chloroform along with 2 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid in a test tube and gently shaken to observe a reddish brown color which indicates the presence of steroids.

    Chloroform and Sulphuric Acid with Acetic Acid Mixture Test

    The Castor essential oil was treated with a mixture of 2ml of chloroform and concentrated sulphuric acid with 2 ml of acetic acid resulting in the formation of a green colour which indicates the presence of steroids

    Biochemical Analysis for Proteins

    Ninhydrin Test

    The Castor essential oils were mixed with 2 ml of ninhydrin solution and heated gently to observe a violet color indicating the presence of protein

    Xanthoproteic Test

    The Castor essential oils were treated with a few drops of concentrated nitric acid resulting in the formation of a yellow colour which indicates the presence of proteins

    Biochemical Analysis for Phenol

    Litmus Test

    A drop of Castor essential oil was added to the blue litmus paper which turns red in color due to acidic nature indicating the presence of phenol.

    Phthalein Dye Test

    The Castor essential oils were treated with conc. sulfuric acid after heating with phthalic anhydride results in the formation of colorless condensation compound and the addition of dilute sodium hydroxide solution results in the formation of a pink color fluorescent compound which indicates the presence of phenol.

    Ferric Chloride Test

    Castor essential oils were boiled with 10 ml of water in a test tubes. A few drops of ferric chloride was added to the 10 ml of heated Castor essential oil in a test tube to observe a blue black coloration which indicates the presence of phenol

    Biochemical Analysis for Glycosides

    Libermann-Burchard’s Test

    The mixture of 2 ml of acetic acid with 2 ml of chloroform was treated with the Castrol essential oil in a test tube and few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid was added by placing the test tube on ice to observe the color change from violet to bluish green which indicate the presence of glycosides

    Keller-kilani Test

    Castrol essential oil was treated with 2ml of glacial acetic acid with 1 to 2 drops of ferric chloride solution in a test tube and 2 ml of conc. sulphuric acid was added to observe a brown ring at the interface which indicates the presence of cardiac glycosides.

    Biochemical Analysis for Amino Acids

    Ammonia Test

    Dilute ammonia and conc. sulphuric acid treated with aqueous Castrol essential oil in a test tube to observe yellowish color formation indicating presence of amino acids.

    Biochemical Analysis for Flavonoids

    Ammonia and H2SO4 Mixture Test

    The Castor essential oil was treated with dilute ammonia and conc. sulphuric acid resulting in the formation of a yellow colour which indicates the presence of flavonoids.

    Biochemical Analysis for Iodine

    Iodine Test

    The Castor essential oil was determined added with a 2ml of iodine solution which results in the positive purple colored test which indicates the presence of iodine.

    Biochemical Analysis for Terpenoids

    Chloroform and H2SO4 Mixture Test

    The Castor essential oil was treated with 2ml of chloroform and concentrated sulphuric acid resulting in the formation of a brownish red layer which indicates the presence of terpenoids

    Results and Discussion

    A Comparative analysis study was performed for the antimicrobial efficacy of Castor essential oil extract with that of the standard antifungal agents towards the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. The antimicrobial assay results for the Castor essential oil procured from the local market shown significant antimicrobial activity results against all the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae with an average disc diffusion of 22.44.mm zone of inhibition diameter determining the susceptibility obtained from performing the Kirby-Bauer technique with an average MIC value of 1.72 µ/ml and an average MFC value of 2..30 µ/ml. The best susceptibility for the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae towards the Castor essential oil was observed from the throat swab isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae sample with a zone diffusion of 28 mm with MIC of 2.25 µ/ml and MFC of 2 .5 µ/ml whereas the least susceptibility was observed from the nail scrape isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae sample with a zone diffusion of 18 mm with MIC of 1.75 µ/ml and MFC of 2 µ/ml respectively 12, 13, 17. The susceptibility with MIC and MFC results of the other isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae sample towards the Castor essential oil were also shown satisfactory results when compared with that of the standard antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae. The results of the other isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae towards the Castor essential oil obtained were ranged for the susceptibility with a zone diameter from 18 to 28 mm in disc diffusion method with MIC from 1 .5 to 2.5 µ/ml and MFC of 1.75 to 2.75 µ/ml respectively. The efficacy of the Castor essential oil extract against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae has shown excellent results when compared with that of the standard antifungal agents used in therapy. The average value of the zone of inhibition susceptibility value of the Castor essential oil extract against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae was 22.44 mm for all the clinical isolates compared to the standard antifungal agents values of 14.88 mm for Voriconozole, 10.11 mm for Itraconazole , 20.66 mm for Amphotericin B, 11.11 mm for Fluconazole, , 16.22 mm for Posoconazole, 16.11 mm for Metronidazole, 16.55 mm for Ketoconazole and 10.44 mm for Rifampin respectively for all the samples assayed. The average MIC value of the Castor essential oil extract against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae was 1.72 µ/ml for all the samples compared to the standard antifungal agents values of 1.30 (µ/ml) for Voriconozole, 1.47 (µ/ml) for Itraconazole , 1.66 (µ/ml) for Amphotericin B, 1.75 (µ/ml) for Fluconazole, 1.94(µ/ml) for Posoconazole, 2.11 (µ/ml) for Metronidazole, 2.30 (µ/ml)for Ketoconazole and 2.41 (µ/ml) for Rifampin respectively for all the clinicals isolates of Cunninghamell abertholletiae samples assayed. The best susceptibility values recorded in the standard antifungal agents against the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae was with Amphotericin B showing the average zone of inhibition diameter of 20.66 mm with the average MIC value of , 1.66 (µ/ml) but the antimicrobial assay results for the Castor essential oil showed better values with an average disc diffusion of 22.44mm zone of inhibition diameter with average MIC value of 1.72 µ/ml. The details of the obtained results were tabulated (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3) for the references. A detailed comparative analysis chart (Figure 1) was prepared for the antimicrobial activities of Castor essential oil extract with that of standard antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae for the references. The phytochemical analysis study was also been conducted for the procured Castor essential oil to determine the constituents which are responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy. The phytochemical analytical tests conducted for the Castor essential oil were as shown in Table 4. The obtained interpretation from the phytochemical analytical test results showed the presence of chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, proteins, phenols, glycosides, reducing sugar, iodine, amino acids and terpenoids respectively. The phytochemical test results were tabulated for the reference (Table 4). The presence of the vital phytochemical component in the Castor essential oil is the phenolic compounds which serves as a potential antimicrobial activity and shown the promising results against the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae when demonstrated with the standard antimicrobial assay techniques14, 15, 16, 17. The presence of pheonolic and other miscellaneous constituents in the Castor essential oil extract contributes to its rich antimicrobial content and has shown the promising results in this study as well. Table 2, Table 3

    Figure 1. Comparative analysis for the antimicrobial activities of Castor essential oil extract versus standard antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae
    Figure 1.

    Table 1. Comparative chart of antimicrobial sensitive activities standard antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae by e-test study
    Standard Antifungal agents  Specimens Average Zone value
      Sinovialfluid Nasal swab Pleural effusion Nail scrape Abscess swab Oral cavity Throat swab Ulcer swab Wound swab
    Voriconazole 20mmS 20mmS 9 mmI 11mmI 25mmS 22 mmS 4mmR 3mmR 20mmR 14.88 mm
    Itraconazole 12 mmI 3mmR 4mmR 3mmR 20mmR 12mmI 13mmI 4mmR 20 mmS 10.11 mm
    Amphotericin B 25mmS 14 mmI 23 mmS 26 mmS 20 mmS 22 mmS 20mmS 24 mmS 12 mmI 20.66 mm
    Fluconazole 10 mmI 10mmI 21 mmS 11mmI 9mmI 13mmI 12mmI 12mmI 2mmR 11.11 mm
    Posaconazole 20mmS 20 mmS 9 mmI 11mmI 21mmS 11mmI 23mmS 21 mmS 11mmI 16.22mm
    Metronidazole 11mmI 21 mmS 10mmI 21 mmS 20mmS 20mmS 9mmI 11mmI 22 mmS 16.11mm
    Ketoconazole 14 mmI 2 mmR 11mmI 21 mmS 20mmS 21mmS 20mmS 10 mmI 20 mmS 16.55 mm
    Rifampin 6mmR 4 mmR 12mmI 23mmS 6mmR 4mmR 4mmR 14 mmI 12 mmI 10.44 mm
    Total Sensitives 3 3 2 4 5 4 3 2 3  
    Total Intermediates 4 2 5 3 1 3 3 4 3  
    Total Resistance 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 2  

    Table 2. Comparative MIC values chart of antimicrobial activites of standard antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae by e-test study
    Standard Antifungal agents  Specimens Average MIC Values 
      SinovialFluid Nasal Swab Pleural Effusion Nail Scrape Abscess swab Oral cavity Throat swab Ulcer swab Wound swab  
    Voriconazole 1.5 µ/ml 1.25µ/ml 1.75µ/ml 1.25 µ/ml 1.75 (µ/ml) 1.5 µ/ml 1.25 µ/ml 1.5(µ/ml) 1.25µ/ml 1.30(µ/ml)
    Itraconazole 1.5 µ/ml 1.25 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 1.25 µ/ml 1.75 (µ/ml) 1.5 µ/ml 1.5 µ/ml 1.5 (µ/ml) 1.25 µ/ml 1.47(µ/ml)
    Amphotericin B 1.75 µ/ml 1.5 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 1.5 µ/ml 2 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 1.5 µ/ml 1.75(µ/ml) 1.5 µ/ml 1.66(µ/ml)
    Fluconazole 1.75 µ/ml 1.5 µ/ml 2 µ/ml 1.5 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 1.75 (µ/ml) 1.5 µ/ml 1.75(µ/ml)
    Posaconazole 1.75 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 2 µ/ml 2 µ/ml 2 (µ/ml) 1.75 µ/ml 1.94(µ/ml)
    Metronidazole 2 µ/ml 2. µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml 2.5 µ/ml 2µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 2.25 (µ/ml) 2. µ/ml 2.11(µ/ml)
    Ketoconazole 2.25 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 2.5 µ/ml 2 µ/ml 2.75 µ/ml 2.µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 2.5 (µ/ml) 2.25 µ/ml 2.30(µ/ml)
    Rifampin 2.25 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 2.5 µ/ml 2 µ/ml 2.75 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml 2.5 µ/ml 2.75 (µ/ml) 2.5 µ/ml 2.41(µ/ml)

    Table 3. Efficacy of Castor essential oil extract against Clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae
      Castor essential oil extract
    Specimen Disc Diffusion MIC MFC
    Sinovialfluid 19 mm S 1.5 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml
    Nasal swab 25 mmS 1.5 µ/ml 1.75 µ/ml
    Pleural effusion 23 mmS 1.75 µ/ml 2 µ/ml
    Nail scrape 18 mmS 1.75 µ/ml 2 µ/ml
    Abscess swab 21 mmS 2 µ/ml 2.25µ/ml
    Oral cavity 25 mmS 2 µ/ml 2.25 µ/ml
    Throat swab 28 mmS 2.25µ/ml 2.5 µ/ml
    Ulcer swab 19 mmS 2..25µ/ml 2.5 µ/ml
    Wound swab 24 mmS 2.5 µ/ml 2.75 µ/ml
    Average value 22.44mmS 1.72 µ/ml 2.30µ/ml

    Table 4. Phyto-chemical analysis of the Castor essential oil
    Biochemical Analysis Observed Result Phytochemical constituents present
    Mayer’sTest Creamy Substance Alkaloids.
    Wagner’s test Reddish brown precipitate Alkaloids.
    Fehling’sTest Brick red color Reducing sugar
    Benedict’s Test Orange red precipitate Reducing sugar
    Salkowski’sTest Brown color Steroids
    Chloroform and Sulphuric acid with Acetic Acid mixture Test Green color Steroids
    Ninhydrin Violet color Proteins
    Xanthoproteic Test  Yellow colour Proteins
    Litmus Test: Red color Phenol
    Phthalein Dye Test Pink fluorescent compound Phenol
    Ferric chloride test Blackish blue color Phenol
    Libermann-Burchard’sTest Bluish green color Cardiac glycosides
    Keller-kilani test Brown colored ring Glycosides
    Ammonia test yellow colour Amino acids
    Ammonia and Sulphuric acid mixture Test yellow colour Flavonoids
    Iodine Test  Purple color Iodine
    Chloroform and Sulphuric acid mixture Test brownish red layer Terpenoids

    Conclusion

    The phytochemical compounds present in the Castor essential oil acts as an effective remedy towards the the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae compared to the standard antifungal agents. The interpretation of the observation and results for the Castor essential oil showed the promising study results regarding its efficacy as a potential antifungal agents when compared to that of the standard synthetic chemical agents used against the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae. This study recommends for more such of natural essential oils from the plant source as an alternative towards the synthetic chemical antimicrobial substances with more detailed studies need to be done in near future with the expectations that many dangerous infections can be cured with these types of phytochemical compounds. Thus, this study has shown that the phytochemical compounds present in the Castor essential oil proves to be more an effective alternative antifungal substance towards the clinical isolates of Cunninghamella bertholletiae.

    Funding

    None

    Acknowledgements

    We would like to acknowledge Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for their constant support.

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