In this article we try to pay attention of readers, researchers and management executives how one can adapting situational leadership in another words dynamic leadership and enhance organization performance for goal attainment with high motivational leverages for effective team building and teamwork. We developed two models and explained how we should have to improve leadership qualities to lead business efficiently.
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Copyright © 2019 Sadique Shaikh, et al.
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Now a days Modeling of Management issues play very vital role for better understanding of Management, principle, knowledge, planning and Implementation in various fields of Management, like Business, office, production, material, logistic, economic, human resource, banking, finance, marketing, sales, advertisement, information technology, IBM and management so on. We can able to develop model from particular topic by using collected data; information, theory, research work and self thoughts with self thinking, what we can able to do in this past work with changes and new work with new way of presentation. And solution is modeling of these topics by using mathematical, theoretical/logical modeling tools. Here I am try to relate respective topic for better understanding with K-maps model which are used in digital electronics for simplification of logical equation. Here I am going to use K-map up to two variables for management of team & work. In last my all work hypothetical and self that’s why I am not mentioned any references. We all of aware management always deals with results, goals and good services to the society, to earn more profit and to maintain reputation of service provider organization and the company. For this purpose always-good organizations and teams are needed. These teams & organization are group of people working together to achieve common established goals. But they have different cultures, emotions, feelings, talent, age, patience, experience and interest of work, and to identify correct person for correct position to achieve target/desire work is very important 1. That’s why team leader should have adopt some good recruitment and selection process, test, programs, group discussion and personal interview according to respective jobs. Leader should have possessed dynamic nature to direct and divert his team. Here expectation from word dynamic leader are leader always ready or to face, if any modification and change is needed in his plans for team according to situation, means according to situation, means according to any internal and external factor related to work, like target, time, quality, quantity, price, demand, supply etc. and modes of working of team is strictly observe by leader, and each and every activity govern by him, If alteration is needed done by them. For this purpose here I am going to explain some relation with the help of graphical models, to obtain efficient teamwork. Now my first model deals with two parameter, ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ for two variables ‘leader’ in x-direction and ‘team’ in y-direction respectively.
a) The Need of Leadership in an Organization
Throughout the course of History, leadership is considereda major factor that helps in reaching goals. Researchers likeHughes, Curphy and Ginnett (2008) said that leadership is anecessity for every action in an organization.Hersey and Blanchard (2001) said that a good leadership is going to influence employees positively and will let themwork hard to achieve organizational goals.Beach (1985) said that leadership is helpful in makingemployees act in a direction that serves organizational goals 2.
b) Situational Leadership
After the emergence of the trait-based leadership, situational leadership appeared as a reaction to it. Back then, social scientists believed that any person or leader is made by the result of time intervention, in other words, Karl Marx, Hebert Spencer (1884) and Carly le, said that time is the key to produce a leader. Psychologists assumed that no optimal profile for a leader exists, and no leader got the same characteristics as others. Therefore, different situations should be handled in different manner since every situation has its own characteristic. Academics built upon the search of Lewin (1935) and identified 3 types of leadership styles based upon descriptive model of leadership climate. (Milternberger, 2011). Situational leadership is a leadership theory that merges both directive and supportive dimensions, and each of these dimensions is to be applied correctly in a given situation. Leaders operating under the Situational Leadership theory have to assess their employees through evaluating their commitment to accomplish a certain task. Situational leadership means that leaders have to change the degree of supportiveness and directness to their employee according to the given situation of subordinates and their level of motivation. This type of Leadership demands that leaders vary their behavior and leadership style according to their subordinate’s commitment. (Kindle, 2009) Situational leadership is the mixture task behavior, worker commitment and relation behavior. Studies show that the success of situational leadership style is related to the combination of these three components must happen; it allows openness between leaders and members in addition to ensure an independence and competence in employee’s decision. A situational leader tries to discover the characteristics of his/her follower in order to know which leadership style to use with him/her. (Farmer, 2012) Moreover, situational leaders are known for giving appropriate guidance and task support for their subordinates in order to accomplish the desired goals successfully 3. This type of leader must also handle problems innovatively and quickly in order to overcome them. This, according to studies, is highly correlated with the improvement of employee’s productivity (Cnaff & Wright, 2013).
c) Situational Leadership Models
Situational Contingency Model of Fielder According to Fielder, there’s no ‘ideal’ type of leading, and therefore it would be very effective for the leader to behave according to the need created with every situation. When leaders and members are in good communication, and when harmony exists between team members, the situation is considered promising. Fielder divided leaders into two kinds: task oriented and relationship oriented. (Fielder, 2007) - Vroom & Yetton leader-situation model. This model is known as the situational contingency model. The illustration bellow represents the situational contingency model, which shows how leaders switch behaviors and leadership styles according to situations. - The path goal theory
Developed by Robert house (1971), Path-goal leadership theory is based on “expectancy theory” established by Victor Vroom. This theory states that leaders’ effectiveness is related to the degree of complementation between leaders and followers when it comes to employee’s environment to encourage good performance levels. There are 4 behaviors that complement leaders: a leader should be goal oriented, directive, supportive and participative; he/she should be as well dependent on subordinates’ characteristic and environmental factors 4, 5.
Ohio State University
The study of Stogdill and Coons assessed the leadership behavior instead of its own characteristics as a factor for successful leadership. These Academics defined leadership as the behaviors took by leaders to direct followers towards reaching the desired goals. The study discovered that the major factors that affect positively the relation between leaders and their followers as well as their productivity are: the nature of the relation between the leader and his follower, they named it “consideration”; his behavior is the second factor which, they named it “initial structure”, such as friendship, trust, mutual respect and the strength of the relationship. The studies were conducted in the US Navy, US air force and other important American Institutes. (Stogdill, Melvin, & Coons., 1975). They added that implementing these two kinds of perspectives in leadership will positively affect their subordinates’ productivity and performance as it encourages and motivates them towards attaining the desired goals. (Daft, Richard, & Steers, 1990). These two newly discovered leadership standpoints have influenced the upcoming leadership theories in changing their perspective and directing their studies into studying the behaviors of leaders instead of their personal characteristics. As stated by Hersey and Blanchard (2001), Situational Leadership model concludes that no unique leadership style is suitable for all situations. This is due to the fact that, leaders must meet employee’s needs and wants to ensure their satisfaction, as increased satisfaction in work, and leaders’ interest in fulfilling his follower’s interests and wants, are proven to affect employee’s productivity positively 6. The second reason is the leader’s need to keep up-to-date with his/her employee’s development, as his knowledge in his work increases in time, commitment to get tasks done gets stronger, and ability to perform tasks gets better. As a conclusion, the Situational Leadership Model suggests that leaders should adapt their style according to employee’s readiness and development level. (Hersey & Blanchard, 2001) Hersey added that situational leaders should be flexible, change according to situations, know how to direct and coach, and to encourage teams to participate in decision making when their readiness is high 7.
Model for Leader v/s Team Nature Figure 1
In focus of this model we able to get clear idea about how can we obtain maximum efficient works from teams. Now here I am split curvilinear (parabolic) curve nature into four quadrants by using help of K-ma model for two variables and in each quadrant behavior of curve is different with respective parameters matching possibilities with having variables team and leader to exhibits nature of leaders and teams either static or dynamic. Now we pay our attention towards the first quadrant i.e. Q1. if we observe the nature of curve in Q1 with respective parameters ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ for variable team and leader. We got here situation leader is dynamic in nature but team is static in nature means here more efforts and guidance of team leader is needed to direct his team. Though here team is static and not able to take self-decisions, plans, and managing ability, but due to dynamic leader, which always able to make self-decisions, plans, programs to guide his team to achieve efficient team work from his team. They will adapt new methods to train his team according to current situation and this ability of leaders is symbol of dynamic leadership, which always change their plans, procedures, techniques and technology according to current situation, and able to protect and direct his team, without any involvement of team to achieve objectives by efficient work. Here in Q1 condition of efficient teamwork is not satisfied, but still we can assume it partially satisfied due to dynamic leadership means nature of curve in Q1. We can able to consider, as it’s a “Threshold” point for efficient teamwork from respective team. Now as we move towards situation both leader and team are dynamic in nature means flexible understanding between leader and teams is possible, without an obstruction in Q1 total burden only on the team leader due to his static team, but in Q2 burden is distributed to both because here team itself also dynamic, which are self motivated, self –decisions maker and planer according to situation. If some sudden problems occurs and no time to intimate to the leader, they always exchange their ideas with leader and most efficient work is only possible on this condition, as shown by curve it’s reaches to it’s maximum value i.e. ‘Resonant point’ and at resonant point we obtain maximum efficient work from team, where team always ready to face changeable procedure, policies, plans and technology in their working environment which is the key of success team and these two i.e. Q1 and Q2 there is always lack of un efficient work. Because we can see the situation in quadrant there i.e. in Q3 leader is static where as team is dynamic, just similar to ‘train without engine’ means though here team is dynamic, self-motivated, self-thinkers and decision makers, but if leader is not dynamic in nature, they can’t able to do any thing. Because if leader not change any policy, procedure and plans how can tam follow it that’s why curve falls down in Q3, and as we switch from Q3 to forth, Q4 quadrant, we observe curve falls down and comes to zero and reason behind this is that, there is no meaning of team work if both leader and team are static in nature and remains unchanged according to current situation, and there is no any matter of work if curve falls down and reach to zero according to curve behavior and situations of quadrant Q3 & Q4 with respective parameter static & dynamic. Here both leader and team “protégé” of top level management. Again to make-work more efficient after Threshold to up to resonant (peak) point in Q1 and Q2, need to understand the nature of work loud with respective time and below model can provide help for this purpose. Figure 1.
Model for Time v/s Workload Nature Figure 2
Here to show nature of workload v/s timer, I am again going to use same model but with different parameters and variables, their parameters, is ‘less’ and ‘more’ for variables ‘Time’ in X-direction and workload in Y-direction by dividing the curve into four segment (Quadrant) as Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. One good dynamic leader must follow such a model to achieve desire work from his team. Now if we discussed about the curve nature into first quadrant i.e. Q1. Here condition is more workload with having more time for respective work, this condition gives satisfaction to team, to do work without any time pressure, means sufficient time for sufficient work, but some time due to environmental, political, technological, economical, and financial problems and obstructions some delay may be occurs and instead all of these problems some one try to do their respective work in given time duration some degradation and fluctuation occurs in his work, but it’s in rare case, only when problems & obstructions overcomes, otherwise we can able to say that this is the threshold level for efficient work with respective time from team. But as we move towards the second quadrant i.e. Q2, we notice here condition is less workload with more time. Here more time dose not means that 100% time for 20% work. It should be more than 10% with respective work means if workload is 25% time to do this job should be 35% and on this condition we get resonant (peak) point of the curve at which efficient work is obtain. This is because if we provide 10% extra time, team members can be able to think and manage about any environmental, political, technological, economical and financial obstructions, face it, eliminate if without any pressure of time and no lack of degradation and fluctuation of any kind in desired work. But as workload and less time, we can also say here minimum time is given for minimum work means ratio of time and workload 50:50, and if leader and team both are dynamic this curve remains stable otherwise due to any obstruction as mentioned in Q1 and Q2 and also any one has static nature either team or leader, they can’t able to handle the situation and curve falls down in Q3, whereas in Q4 quadrant, condition is totally unsatisfied i.e. more workload and less time. Here curve directly falls down and comes to zero, which are so far of consideration to obtain efficient work from team and this happens always try to eliminate. If any team and organization follow such a strategy, they can achieve some times more work with less time. If someone likes this, yes they can achieve, but there is no any maintenance of quality in products and good services to the society, which destroy the image and reputation of the industries and service provider organizations. Here only quantity achieves, but what’s about quality? Figure 2
In this piece of work we emphasized on how situational/dynamic leadership is important and equally discussed how it will achieved to setup team and teamwork in organization towards the attainment of organizational goal with the help of two lucid models.
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