Results interestingly shown prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with other reasons of menopause is higher than participants with a natural menopause. Many observational studies have shown that the transition to menopause is a period of increased risk of depression23,24. Unpredictable hormone fluctuations plus stress, body image, sexuality, infertility, or aging; anyone or a combination of these, causes emotional distress that may result in mood swings or in more severe cases, depression. Determining the cause and extent of your “menopause blues” is very important19. Some study suggested concerns about the physical and social consequences of aging, or her self-esteem may be affected by a culture that values youth and reproductive capacity20.
Results of present study showed that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease was higher in participants with other reasons of menopause compared with natural menopause women. It may be explained by other reasons of menopause which it occurs earlier than normal menopause. It has been reported that cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence and depression are just a few of many common and major complaints among midlife women, which in result affects their quality of life22. Recent studies showed that there is not any association between CVD risk and hysterectomy, with ovarian conservation21. Atsma et al., have reported that there was no significant relationship between postmenopausal status and CVD. However, it has been reported that other reasons for menopause had a modest impact on CVD22. Some other studies confirm our observations which indicated that premenopausal women are protected against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and the lack of ovarian function increased the risk of CVD23.
We also evaluated the anthropometric, biochemical and hematological indices. The BMI and uric acid were higher in the other reasons of menopause compared with natural menopause group.
The results of current study showed in spite of increased CVD in participants with the other reasons for menopause than normal menopause, they have a lower risk of diabetes and as a result, metabolic syndrome. Dørum et al. published conflict results and reported that women who had undergone bilateral oophorectomy had higher BMI and a trend towards higher blood pressure, lower HDL cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides, that all of them make the metabolic syndrome prevalence higher24. It seems that having an abnormal menopause can disarrange insulin hemostasis. Rosano et al., have reported that insulin resistance is significantly higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women25. Although, we cannot identify this irregularity in current research because of no measuring the insulin resistance indices, which should be included in future studies.
It is worthy to mention that this research has some limitation. Our study was cross sectional and this was the most significant limitation of our study. However, it can help us to design a cohort study.