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Journal of Parasite Research

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ISSN: 2690-6759
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    Helminth parasites prevalence and distribution among Sheep in Gudaya Bila District, East Wallaga, Ethiopia

    Gemeda Tesema 1   Solomon Tesfaye 2   Damtew Bekele 1  

    1Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Ambo University.

    2Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar.

    Abstract

    Helminth parasite infections in sheep are of major veterinary importance in many agro-ecological zones and are a primary factor in the productivity of sheep. The main objective of this study was to determine helminth parasites prevalence and their economic loss caused on sheep with its control approach at the study area. A cross-sectional study using a simple random sampling procedure was used to study helminth parasite identification at Gudaya Bila district during 2022 in two seasons of the year: winter (January - March) and summer (June - August). Out of 384 sheep chosen at random sampling from five Kebeles in the Gudaya Bila district (Welenelemu, Harogodisa, Chalejima, Hagelogidami, and Bila) that underwent flotation and sedimentation procedures, about 149 were infected by ay helminth parasites, with an overall prevalence 38.8%. Regarding the distribution of helimenth parasites at the class level, the prevalence was 13.9%, 11.7%, and 3.9% in trematoda, nematode, and cestoda, respectively. The helminth species that had highest prevalence were Fasciola species (19.5%), Haemonchus species (14.76%), Strongyloides species (10.74%), and Schistosoma species (9.4%), and those that had the least prevalence were Moniezia species (6.04%), Paramphistomum species (5.4%), Taenia species (4.02%), Nematodirus species (3.3%) and Trichostrongylus species (1.34 %). The summer season was favorable for helminths parasite transmission.

    The prevalence of helminths in the summer season was 98 (25.5%), and in the winter season it was 51 (13.3%). The study shows that the gastrointestinal helminth parasite was a major health problem and had an impact on the production of sheep in the study area. Therefore, a detailed study should be conducted to identify the parasite at the species level, and further investigation will be needed to study the association of the prevalence of helminth parasites within age, sex and the agroecology of sheep in the area. Then educating the people about the impacts of helminths is needed to control them.

    Author Contributions
    Received 04 Oct 2023; Accepted 08 Nov 2023; Published 14 Dec 2023;

    Academic Editor: Andreia Manuela Garcês, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by: Single-blind

    Copyright © 2023 Gemeda Tesema, et al.

    License
    Creative Commons License     This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Gemeda Tesema, Solomon Tesfaye, Damtew Bekele (2023) Helminth parasites prevalence and distribution among Sheep in Gudaya Bila District, East Wallaga, Ethiopia. Journal of Parasite Research - 1(3):23-38.

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    DOI 10.14302/issn.2690-6759.jpar-23-4764

    Background of the study

    Parasitic diseases are a major impediment to livestock production and development in developing countries 12. Domestic animals, like in many developing countries, play an important role in Ethiopia, serving as a source of (animal performance) traction power, income, and milk and meat production 17. Ethiopian livestock production systems are broadly classified as low input, mixed crop-livestock, agro-pastoral, and pastoral systems, as well as medium input, peri-urban, and urban enterprises 1.

    Helminthosis in domestic animals is primarily caused by nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes. It reduces fertility, work capacity, involuntary culling 25, food intake, weight, and milk production, and has a higher mortality rate 10. Helminth infections are one of the greatest causes of productive and reproductive loss in animals and man, and in some cases, it results in heavy mortalities 21 (Ola-Fadunsin et al., 2020). The main contributing elements that affect GI helminths infections include management factors like husbandry practices, climate, and host effects 32.

    These parasites have a negative impact on animal health and cause massive economic losses to the livestock industry 25, 27. The productivity losses through reduced feed intake and decreased efficiency in feed utilization due to subclinical or chronic infections are also hindering profitable livestock industry (Akanda et al., 2014). But the effect of infestation by gastrointestinal (GI) helminths varies according to the parasite the degree of infestation and other risk factors such as ‘species’, age, season and intensity of worm burden 13. Helminth parasites of sheep are major causes of economic losses due to decreased productivity and increased mortality in all countries and areas around the world 23, 35. In many parts of the Eastern Wollega Zone, the gastrointestinal nematodes parasite remains an important disease problem of sheep in the area 4.

    People do household remedies according to their limited knowledge. Anthelmintics, ethnoveterinary medicine, grazing management, nutritional supplementation, genetic approaches, biological techniques, vaccination, and other strategies all have been proposed to control the Helminths parasite9 (Stearetal.,2007). Despite the fact that farmers and traditional healers have long used ethnoveterinary medicinal plants to treat parasitism, scientific evidence on the antiparasitic efficacy of most plant products is limited 9. However, there was no study carried out on helminth parasites and economic loss on sheep with its control in the study area. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to determine the types of helminth parasites and their economic impact on sheep with a control approach in the study area.

    Materials and Methods

    Description of study area

    Figure 1. Map of the study area
     Map of the study area

    The study was conducted at the Gudaya Bila district in the East Wallaga zone, Oromia region, 330 km West of Addis Ababa, which located at 105 km North East of Nekemte which is the capital town of East Wallaga (Figure 1). It is situated at 9017’23’’S longitudinal and 37001’28’’N latitude. Altitudinal range of the district is from 500-3500 meter above sea level. The minimum temperature of the district is 11.30c, the maximum temperature is 23.360C and the mean average temperature is 16.820C. The annual rainfall of the district with its minimum rainfall is 1400 mm and maximum rainfall through the year is 2000 mm. The mean annual rainfall of the district is 1682.33 mm (GBDAO, 2021). The main rainy season extends from early May to the end of October. There are four seasons; autumn - short and moderate rainfall (from March to May), summer - a long wet season rainfall (June to August), spring - short dry season (September to October), and winter - a long dry season (December to February). The estimated animal population in the study area is about 81,586 cattle, 15,298 sheep, and 12,978 goats (GBAHO, 2021).

    Study Design

    A cross-sectional study was used to determine the prevalence of helminths parasites in sheep based on two seasons (winter and summer) of year examination.

    Study Animals

    A study was done on 384 sheep chosen at simple random sampling from five kebeles (Smalll administrative unit in Ethiopia) in the Gudaya Bila district (Welenelemu, Harogodisa, Chalejima, Hagelogidami, and Bila). Gudaya Bila district have 13 kebeles from those kebeles five kebeles were selected purposefully based on the sheep production.

    Sample size

    The sample size was determined using the simple random sampling formula given by 33 Thrusfield



    Where, N = required sample size, Pexp = Expected prevalence (50%), d = desired absolute precision (0.05). Pexp = Expected prevalence (50%) is used since the other research concerned with the helminths parasites is not carried out at the study area. Accordingly, 384 samples are needed, so 384 sheep were sampled and examined.

    For carrying out this research 80 people were purposively selected from the five study Kebeles. Those people selected from the study area are the sheep house holders.

    Sample collection and parasite determination

    A total of 384 faecal samples were collected from sheep in various locations around the districts from five designated kebeles. Faecal samples are carefully collected from the rectum of sheep using protective sterile disposable gloves into clean and placed in a sample collecting bottle and labelled 30 and then delivered to the veterinary laboratory in Gudaya Bila for the diagnosis of parasites. Approximately 3-6 gm of faecal sample was taken directly from the rectum of each individual sheep. However, freshly voided faecal samples are also taken into account, and the obtained samples are then preserved in plastic containers. All faecal samples are collected in separate cups. To prevent potential cross contamination between faecal samples, separate disposable gloves are worn for each collected sample. Faecal samples collected in the field are kept in refrigerated at 4°C, processed for the determination of parasite within 24 hours of collection 15, and laboratory examination was carried out to identify those helminths parasites that affect the health of sheep.

    Data collection related with economic impacts of helminths and way of controlling them

    Data was collected through questionnaires on how the local people can control the helminths parasite traditionally and the economic impacts of those helminths on the sheep. This questionnaire was prepared in English and translated in to Afan Oromo.

    Examination of samples

    Two different types of faecal qualitative testing are flotation and sedimentation were used for identification of nematodes, cestodes and trematodes. The flotation technique in saturated NaCl solution for nematodes and cestodes and sedimentation for trematode procedures are used to assess the faecal samples as a flotation agent, zinc sulphate solution was utilized (Foriet, 1999)11 was employed, and the slides prepared were examined under microscope (x10).

    Data Analysis

    Data management and analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 22. Data was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using proportion with P-value for chi-square test in determining the study of different groups of helminths. Descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation were used. The relationships between the season of infection were determined using chi square (χ2) and P value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

    Ethical considerations

    The livestock farmers whose animals were inspected verbally agreed to take part in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the owner of the selected sheep prior to inclusion in the study. Confidentiality of all information obtained from respondents was assured by safely and securely storing the questionnaires.

    Results

    General characteristics of the informant

    In this study a total of 80 informants 71 (91.25%) male and 7 (8.5%) female informants were involved. The age of informants ranges from 40-75. But, the majority of the informants are ranges from 50-70. Regarding the educational status, the majority of informants were not educated 59 (73.75 %) but only 21 (26.25%) are educated. Table 1

    Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of informants (n= 80) in Gudaya Bila District, East Wallaga Zone, 2022
    Socio- demographic characteristics Category Number Percentage
    Age groups 40-50 16 20.0
    51-60 27 33.7
    61-70 33 41.3
    71-75 4 5.0
    Sex Male 73 91.3
    Female 7 8.7
    Educational Background Not able to read and write 59 73.8
    1-4 13 16.2
    5-8 8 10

    Prevalence of helminths parasites in sheep

    A total of 384 sheep were sampled and examined for helminths parasites and about 149 (38.8%) were found infected with one and/or more parasites.

    The prevalence of helminths species that are exist at the study area in the male and female sheep from Nematoda, Trematoda and Cestoda by sex of sheep are shown in Table 2.

    Table 2. The overall prevalence of helminths parasites in sheep (n=384) in Gudaya Bila District in 2022
    Helminths Species identified Number of infected Percentage
    Trematoda
    Fasciola species 29 7.6
    Schistosomaspecies 14 3.6
    Paramphistomum species 8 2.1
    Total 51 13.3
    Cestoda
    Taenia species 6 1.6
    Moniezia species 9 2.3
    Total 15 3.9
    Nematoda
    Haemonchus species 22 5.7
    Strongyloides species 16 4.2
    Nematodirus species 5 1.3
    Trichostrongylus species 2 0.5
    Total 45 11.7
    Mixed infections
    Haemonchus speciesand Nematodirus species 3 0.9
    Taenia species and Fasciola species 8 2.1
    Fasciola species and Schistosoma species 6 1.6
    Moniezia speciesand Nematodirus species 5 1.3
    Fasciola speciesand Haemonchus species 11 2.9
    Paramphistomum species and Moniezia species 5 1.3
    Total 38 9.9
    Overall prevalence 149 38.8

    The frequency distribution of helminth species among sheep in the study area are shown by Table 3. The overall occurrence of helminths from the total of 384 sheep at the study area is about 149 (38.8%) are infected with one or more helminths. These include Trematodes: Fasciola species 29 (19.5%), Schistosoma species 14 (9.4%), Paramphistomum species 8 (5.4%) and, the prevalence of Cestodes: Moniezia species 9 (6.04%) and Taenia species 6 (4.02%) (Table 3), and Nematodes including Haemonchus species 22 (14.76%) Strongyloides species16 (10.74%), Nematodirus species 5 (3.3 %), Trichostrongylus species 2 (1.34 %) Table 3, andthe most prevalence species of helminths at the study area are Fasciola species 29 (19.5%), Haemonchus species (14.76%) and Strongyloides species (10.74%)and the least known species are Trichostrongylus species (1.34%) and Nematodirus species (3.3%) at the study area. Among the helminths parasites the trematoda had the highest frequency 51 (13.28%), followed by nematoda 45 (11.72%) and the least was recorded as Cestoda 15 (3.9%) (Table 3).

    The mixed helminth species which can affect the health of sheep are shown in Table 4. The mixed infection of helminths at the study area accounts about 38 (9.9%) from the overall infection of helminths at the study area Table 4. Fasciola species and Haemonchus species 11 (2.86%), Taenia species and Fasciola species 8 (2.08%), Fasciola species and Schistosoma species 6 (1.6%), Moniezia species and Nematodirus species; however Paramphistomum species and Moniezia species both mixed species accounts about 5 (1.3%) and Haemonchus species and Nematodirus species accounts about 3 (0.78%) which is the least species from the mixed species. Table 4

    Socio-demographic characteristics of Sheeps and prevalence of helminths parasites

    Among the four nematodes species exist at the study area based on sex, Haemonchus species 14 (6.084) and 8 (5.195%) in females and males respectively. Strongyloides species have the second most common prevalence at the study area among the nematodes species which accounts for 9 (3.913%) in females and 7(4.54%) in males. Form the nematodes species that have the least prevalence are Nematodirus species that accounts for 3 (1.3%) in females and 2 (1.299%) in males and Trichostrongylus species that accounts for only 1 (0.65%) in male and 1 (0.43%) in female. In both male and female Haemonchus species have the highest prevalence rate among nematodes species at the study area in both sexes.

    Among the three trematodes species prevalence rate based on the sex at the study area Fasciola species 18 (7.83%) and 11 (7.14%) in female and male respectively. Schistosoma species in female 8 (3.47%) and in male 6 (3.896%) and Paramphistomum species is the least common trematodes that affect sheep at the study area which account for 5 (2.174%) and 3 (1.95%) in female and male respectively. In both male and female Fasciola species have the highest prevalence rate among trematodes species.

    Among the two species of Cestoda based on sex, the Moniezia species 5 (3.25%) in male and 4 (1.74%) in the female, and Taenia species accounts for 4 (1.74%) in female and 2 (1.299%) in male. The Moniezia species have high prevalence in male while Taenia species have highprevalence in female at the study area.

    According to the result obtain from the veterinary laboratory from the five study kebele, the sheep is mostly affected by helminths in Hagelogidami which accounts for 57 (14.84%) from this the helminths are Fasciola species 14 (3.65%), Haemonchus species 8 (2.083%), Schistosoma species 7 (1.82%), Strongyloides species 4 (1.04%) and Taenia species 3 (0.78%) and the least species exist Paramphistomum species, Moniezia species and Nematodirus species are accounts about 2(0.52%) and mixed helminths 15(3.9%). Chalejima is the second most affected by helminths parasites which account about 37 (9.67%) Fasciola species 8 (2.083%), Haemonchus species5 (1.3%), Moniezia species, Strongyloides species both accounts about 4 (1.04%), Paramphistomum species, Taenia species, Schistosoma species are accounts 3 (0.78%) and Mixed helminths 7 (1.82%). At Chalejima the most prevalence species is Fasciola species. Welenelemu is the 3rd affected kebele 31(8.07%) from the study area. Fasciola species 7 (1.82%), Haemonchus species 6 (1.56%), Strongyloides species 5 (1.3%), Schistosoma species 3 (0.78%) and the other species like Nematodirus species, Paramphistomum species and Trichostrongylus species have the least prevalence of occurrence at the study kebele which are accounts about 1 (0.26%) and mixed helminths 7 (1.82%). The two kebeles which are affected with helminthes in small amount are Harogodisa and Bila which are account about 18 (4.69%) and 6 (1.56%) respectively. But they are different in the occurrence of species. In Harogodisa Strongyloides species and Moniezia species accounted for 3 (0.78%), Paramphistomum species and Nematodirus species accounted for 2 (0.52%), Haemonchus species and Trichostrongylus species accounts 1 (0.26%) and mixed helminths 6 (1.56%). From all study kebeles the prevalence of helminths species in Bila is very low. Such species exist in Bila are Haemonchus species 2(0.52 %), Schistosoma species1 (0.26 %) and mixed helminths 3 (0.78%). From all species of helminths parasites at study kebele Fasciola species, Haemonchus species, Strongyloides species and Strongyloides species have the highest number of prevalence. The helminths parasites that have the least prevalence at the study kebele are Nematodirus species and Trichostrongylus species.

    According to the result obtain from the veterinary laboratory from the five study kebele, the sheep is mostly affected by helminths in Hagelogidami which accounted for 57 (14.84%) from this the helminths were Fasciola species 14 (3.65%), Haemonchus species 8 (2.083%), Schistosoma species 7 (1.82%), Strongyloides species 4 (1.04%) and Taenia species 3 (0.78%) and the least species exist Paramphistomum species, Moniezia species and Nematodirus species accounted for 2 (0.52%) and mixed helminths 15 (3.9%). Chalejima is the second most affected by helminths parasites which account about 37(9.67%) Fasciola species 8 (2.083%), Haemonchus species 5 (1.3%), Moniezia species, Strongyloides species both accounted for 4 (1.04%), Paramphistomum species, Taenia species, Schistosoma species accounted for 3 (0.78%) and mixed helminths 7 (1.82%). At Chalejima the most prevalence species is Fasciola species. Welenelemu is the 3rd affected kebele 31(8.07%) from the study area. Fasciola species 7 (1.82%), Haemonchus species 6 (1.56%), Strongyloides species 5(1.3%), Schistosoma species3 (0.78%) and the other species like Nematodirus species, Paramphistomum species and Trichostrongylus species have the least prevalence of occurrence at the study kebele which are accounts about 1 (0.26%) and mixed helminths 7(1.82%).The two kebeles which are affected with helminths in small amount are Harogodisa and Bila which are account about 18 (4.69%) and 6 (1.56%) respectively. But they are different in the occurrence of species. In Harogodisa Strongyloides species and Moniezia species accounts 3(0.78%), Paramphistomum species and Nematodirus speciesaccounted for 2(0.52%), Haemonchus species and Trichostrongylus species accounts 1(0.26%) and Mixed helminths 6(1.56%). From all study kebeles the prevalence of helminths species in Bila is very low. Such species exist in Bila are Haemonchus species 2 (0.52%), Schistosoma species 1(0.26 %) and mixed helminths 3 (0.78%). The helminths parasites that have the least prevalence at the study kebele are Nematodirus species and Trichostrongylus species.

    According to the result obtain from the veterinary laboratory from the five study kebele, the sheep is mostly affected by helminths in Hagelogidami which accounted for 57 (14.84%) from this the helminths are Fasciola species 14(3.65%), Haemonchus species 8 (2.083%), Schistosoma species 7(1.82%), Strongyloides species4(1.04%) and Taeniaspecies 3(0.78%) and theleastspecies exist Paramphistomum species, Moniezia species and Nematodirus species are accounts about 2(0.52%) and mixed helminths 15(3.9%). Chalejima is the second most affected by helminths parasites which accounted about 37 (9.67%) Fasciola species 8(2.083%), Haemonchus species 5 (1.3%), Moniezia species, Strongyloides species both accounted about 4 (1.04%), Paramphistomum species, Taenia species, Schistosoma species accounted for 3 (0.78%) and mixed helminths 7 (1.82%). At Chalejima the most prevalence species is Fasciola species. Welenelemu is the 3rd affected kebele 31 (8.07%) from the study area. Fasciola species 7 (1.82%), Haemonchus species 6 (1.56%), Strongyloides species 5(1.3%), Schistosoma species 3 (0.78%) and the other species like Nematodirus species, Paramphistomum species and Trichostrongylus species have the least prevalence of occurrence at the study kebele which are accounts about 1 (0.26%) and mixed helminths 7(1.82%).The two kebeles which are affected with helminths in small amount are Harogodisa and Bila which are account about 18 (4.69%) and 6 (1.56%) respectively. But they are different in the occurrence of species. In Harogodisa Strongyloides species and Moniezia species accounts 3(0.78%), Paramphistomum species and Nematodirus species accounted for 2 (0.52%), Haemonchus species and Trichostrongylus species accounts 1 (0.26%) and mixed helminths 6 (1.56%). From all study kebeles the prevalence of helminths species in Bila is very low. Such species exist in Bila are Haemonchus species 2 (0.52 %), Schistosoma species 1(0.26 %) and mixed helminths 3 (0.78%). The helminths parasites that have the least prevalence at the study kebele are Nematodirus species and Trichostrongylus species.

    Season and helminths parasite of sheep

    Helminths parasites of the sheep infection in two season of the year are shown by Table 3. This table also shows helminths parasite type and season at which those helminths can mostly affect the sheep with their prevalence of helminths.

    Table 3. Helminths parasites and season and prevalence of helminths parasites in each season
    Season No. of examined No. of infected Number of infected and prevalence of with different group of parasites
    Helminths group Helminths species Frequency of infection Percentage of infection
    Winter (December, January and February) 384 51(13.28%) Trematoda Fasciola species 6 11.8%
    Schistosoma species 5 9.8%
    Paramphistomum species 1 1.96%
    Total 12 23.56%
    Nematoda Haemonchus species 12 23.53%
    Strongyloides species 7 1.72%
    Trichostrongylus species - -
    Nematodirus species 2 3.91%
    Total 21 41.18%
    Cestoda Moniezia species 2 3.92%
    Taenia species 1 1.96%
    Total 3 5.88%
    Mixed infection   15 29.41%
    Summer( June, July and August) 98(25.52%) Trematoda Fasciola species 23 23.47 %
    Schistosoma species 9 9.2%
    Paramphistomum species 7 7.14%
    Total 39 39.78%
    Nematoda Haemonchus species 10 10.2%
    Strongyloides species 9 9.18%
    Trichostrongylus species 2 2.14%
    Nematodirus species 3 3.06%
    Total 24 24.48%
    Cestoda Moniezia species 7 7.14%
    Taenia species 5 5.1%
    Total 12 12.24%
    Mixed infection   23 23.47%
      Total 149(38.8%)     149 38.8%

    Based on the data on the overall prevalence of infection during the study two different seasons indicated maximum data is obtained during summer 25.52%and about 13.28%is obtained in winter season.There is a variations in seasonal prevalence among different parasite groups, with trematodes ,nematodes and cestodes showing highest prevalence of 39.78%,24.48% and 12.24% respectively during summer season, and mixed infections recording a about the prevalence of 23.5% during summer. But in the winter season the prevalence of such species of helminths infection is 41.18%, 23.535% and 5.88%, nematodes, trematodes and cestodes respectively; the mixed infection records about the prevalence of 29.41% during winter season. Except those mixed infection the infection of each parasites groups have high prevalence during the summer season.

    The cross sectional study carried out in winter and summer season result indicates that helminths species parasite mostly affects the sheep in summer season. As stated on the above table-6 mostly helminthes species are common exist in the summer season than in winter season. From 384 sheep examined about 149 (38.8%) sheep are infected by helminths parasites. From this total over all infection of parasites about 98 (25.5%) are infected in summer season and about 51 (13.3%) are infected in the winter season. Helminths species that are mostly infect sheep at the summer season are Fasciola species 23 (23.47%), Schistosoma species 9 (9.2%), Strongyloides species 9 (9.18%), Paramphistomum species 7 (7.14%), Moniezia species 7(7.14%) the mixed infection accounts about 23(23.47%); and those affect in least amount are Taenia species 5 (5.1%), Nematodirus species, and Trichostrongylus species 2 (2.14%). The most common helminths the affect sheep in the winter season are Haemonchus species 12 (23.53 %), Strongyloides species 7 (13.73 %), Fasciola species 6 (11.8%) and the mixed infection accounts about 15 (29. 4%); and those species that affect in the least amount are Nematodirus species, and Moniezia species both accounts 2(3.92%), and Paramphistomum species and Taenia species accounted about 1(1.915). Then this make that the sheep is mostly affected in the summer season than winter season by different species of helminths.

    Those traditional medicines are used at the study area are Albizzia aummifera, Phytolacca dedecandria, Ruta chalepensis, Cucuribita pipo, Alluium sativum, Nicotiana rustica, Nigella sativa, Vernolia amygdalina, Zingiber officinale, Hagenia abyssinica and Momordica fetida are the medicinal plants which are used for the helminths treatments at the study area. Then such plants can use for control of helminths in sheep at the study area.

    Impact of Helminths on Sheep Productivity

    The livestock industry contributes significantly to the economy and has a great potential to help with economic growth by supplying meat, milk, other food products, cultivation power, transport, security in times of crop failure, and farm yard manure (fertility and energy), as well as playing a significant role in export commodities. But, if they can be affected by the disease there is the cause of economic loss on the product obtained from the livestock and the income obtained from them is also affected. Then the helminths disease can affect the health of the sheep by affecting product obtain from them and income through selling them.

    Based on the laboratory results the helminths class that cause economic loss are Trematoda 51 (34.23 %), Nematode 45 (30.2 %), Cestoda 15 (10.07 %) and the combination of them are accounts about 38 (25.23%). Based on this Trematoda and Nematode are the highest helminths that cause economic loss, the next of them is the combination of all parasitic helminths and Cestoda is the least cause of economic loss at the study area.

    Response of people how the helminths can affect the health of sheep

    According to data obtained from the people at the study area way of the helminths can affect the health of sheep are abdominal distention 27.5%, Diarrhoea 22.5%, gastrointestinal damage 21.25%, absorption of nutrients 18.5% and Gastroenteritis 16.5% (Table 4).

    Table 4. Respondents response on symptoms of the helminth infections in Gudaya Bila District, East Wallaga in 2022
    Symptoms available Number Percentage
    Diarrhoea 18 22.5
    Gastroenteritis 13 16.5
    gastrointestinal damage 17 21.25
    abdominal distention 22 27.5
    absorption of nutrients 15 18.5
    Total 80  

    Response of People Economic Loss Caused By Helminths

    Table shows the economic loss caused by to helminths parasite estimation based on the response of people at the study area. Based on the data obtained from Table 5 the respondents the most economic loss caused by helminths are slow growth rate, meat production, morbidity, buying anthelminthic and death of sheep. Out of the 73,000 ETB cost lost due to helminths about 25,000 ETB and 20,000 ETB is lost through slow growth rate and meat production. Due to Morbidity and buying anthelminthic about 15,000ETB and 12,000ETB is lost. Death of the sheep can be cause economic loss about 10,000 per annual. This estimation is based on the response of the respondents. This indicate that helminths can affect the economy of the societies through affecting meat production which means decrease productivity, weight loss, buying anthelminthic, slow growth rate, death of sheep and morbidity Table 5.

    Table 5. Respondents response on economic loss caused by helminths from the sheep in Gudaya Bila District, East Wallaga in 2022
    Value lost from sheep due to helminths parasites Estimated losses per annual in ETB Percentage
    Meat production 20,000 27.4%
    Buying anthelminthic 12,000 16.44%
    Death of sheep 10,000 13.99%
    Slow growth rate 25,000 34.25%
    Morbidity 15,000 20.55%
    Total 73,000  

    ETB – Ethiopian Birr

    Discussion

    The overall occurrence of helminthes from the total of 384 sheep at the study area is about 149 (38.8 %) are infected with one or more helminths. However, higher prevalence was observed in the study conducted by Tesfaheywet Zeryehun 30 in and around Haramaya, 259 (67.45%). Among the helminthes parasites the Trematoda had the highest prevalence 51(13.28%) at the study area, followed by Nematoda 45 (11.72%) and the least was Cestoda 15 (3.9%). Fasciola species 29 (19.5%), Schistosoma species14 (9.4%), Paramphistomum species 8 (5.4%) are the dominant species in our study area. Similarly lower prevalence Cestoda species like Moniezia species9 (6.04%)and Taenia species was observed and Nematoda species including Haemonchus species 22 (14.76%) Strongyloides species16 (10.74%), Nematodirus species 5 (3.3 %), Trichostrongylus species 2 (1.34 %), and the most prevalence species of helminths at the study area are Fasciola species29 (19.5%), Haemonchus species (14.76%) and Strongyloides species(10.74%) and the least known species are Trichostrongylus species (1.34 %) and Nematodirus species (3.3%) at the study area. This is agree with the study conducted by Tesfaheywet Zeryehun 30 in and around Haramaya, state that overall prevalence of helminthes of sheep was about 259 (67.45%) sheep were infected at least by one helminths parasite species. Nematoda Strongyle species (39.84%), Strongyloides species (17.45%) and Trichuris specie (7.81%); Trematodes Fasciola species (1.82%) and Paraphistomum species (0.78%) and Cestoda Moneizia species (9.11 %) are identified.

    The study conducted by Shimelis Dagnachew et al., 26, the dominant helminths parasite species found during the study period were Strongyloid species (37.63%) followed by Fasciola species (6.99%) and the lowest was Paraphistomum species (0.72%). But the main difference in the prevalence of helminths is may be due to the differences in geographical locations, climates, management systems, number of sheep examined and nutritional conditions of the sheep.

    From the Nematoda species Haemonchus species 22 (14.76%) and Strongyloides species16 (10.74%) have the most common prevalence of occurrence than the other like Nematodirus species (11.11%), Trichostrongylus species (4.44 %) and the Trichostrongylus specieshave the least prevalence of occurrence. This study result is in agreement with species reported by Anteneh Wondimu and Sagni Gutu in Guto Gida district Haemonchus species (21.87%) Trichostrongylus species (14%), Strongyloides species (7.29%) except one species which isNematodirus speciesis exist at the study area. But the prevalence of their occurrence might be different due to the differences in geographical locations, climates, management systems and nutritional conditions of the animals, immunity of the sheep to resist the parasites, the sample size considered, types of techniques utilized, and lack of intervention with anthelmintic.

    The overall prevalence of infection during the study two different seasons indicated maximum data is obtained during summer (25.52%) and about (13.28%) is obtained in winter season. This indicates that summer season is favorable for the helminths transmission than in the winter season. The study conducted by Rajakaruna and Warnakulasooriya 24, support this idea since it say that the Rainfall and moisture makes the larvae easy to move. In addition, heavy rains can sweep larvae from the ground into water bodies, where they can infect drinking animals like sheep. Larvae on vegetation move up and down in response to the amount of moisture in the grass. The likelihood of being consumed by ruminants is very great, although in dry conditions the larvae travel to the base or occasionally to the soil. Another study conducted by Ummey et al35, in the India is also indicate that overall prevalence of sheep infection during the summer seasons is (29.65%) and the winter season is (25.26 %) which means infection of sheep by helminths parasites is maximum during the summer season than winter season.

    There is a variation in seasonal prevalence among different parasite groups, with trematodes, nematodes and cestodes showing highest prevalence of 39.78%, 24.48% and 12.24% respectively during summer season, and mixed infections recording about the prevalence of 23.5% during summer. But in the winter season the prevalence of such species of helminths infection is 41.18%, 23.535% and 5.88%, nematodes, trematodes and cestodes respectively; the mixed infection records about the prevalence of 29.41% during winter season. Except those mixed infection the infection of each parasites groups have high prevalence during the summer season. According to the research conducted Ummey et al35 slight variations were obtained in seasonal prevalence among different parasite groups, with nematodes, trematodes and cestodes were showing highest prevalence of 14.745%, 6.74% and 1.47% respectively during winter season, and mixed infections recording a prevalence of 2.73% during winter season. But in the summer season the prevalence of each group of helminths parasites are 18.14%, 5.97% and 1.77% and the mixed infection records the prevalence of 3.75% during the summer season.

    The infections of the group of parasites have high prevalence during the summer season but there is slight difference with my obtaining data. This difference may be due to climatic factor of the study area, geographic location, immunity of the sheep to resist the parasites in different season, the sample size considered, types of techniques utilized, and lack of intervention with anthelmintic.

    The cross sectional study carried out in winter and summer season result indicates that helminths species parasite mostly affects the sheep in summer season. From 384 sheep examined about 149 (38.8%) sheep are infected by helminths parasites. From this total over all infection of parasites about 98 (25.5%) are infected in summer season and about 51 (13.3%) are infected in the winter season. Then this make that the sheep is mostly affected in the summer season than winter season by different species of helminths. This is agree with research conducted by Debela 7, the favorable environment for larvae development of helminths parasites is ranged at temperature about 10–36°C and humidity proportion of 85%. This indicates that the summer is favorable for the larval development. The abdominal distention, Diarrhoea and gastrointestinal damage are the most common way through which the helminths can affect the health of sheep and absorption of nutrients and absorption of nutrients are also the next way of helminths can affect the sheep.

    At the study area peoples can have their own way of controlling the helminths through medicinal plants. At the study area the knowledge of using medicinal plant is practice like Bonga communities as state by Solomon Shiferaw 28. So, Bonga communities have maintained good knowledge of using medicinal plants for control of gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and traditional knowledge, practice and validation methods of activity of medicinal plants against helminthes of animal are used by Ethiopian community 3.

    The tobacco or Nicotiana rustica is used by the community of Gudaya Bila like used in developing countries, like India, anthelmintic effect of tobacco extract on parasitic nematode, Marshallagia marshalli, was found to be as effective as a standard anthelmintic levamisole 20. Similarly, Iqbal et al.,14 found the effectiveness of the extracts of leaves of tobacco against nematodes in traditional medicine system of Pakistan.

    Based on the data table 8 obtained from the respondents the most economic loss caused by helminths are slow growth rate, meat production, Morbidity, buying anthelminthic and death of sheep. Out of the 73,000 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) cost lost due to helminths about 25,000 ETB and 20,000 ETB is lost through slow growth rate and meat production. Due to Morbidity and buying anthelminthic about 15,000 ETB and 12,000 ETB is lost. Death of the sheep can be cause economic loss about 10,000 ETB per annual. This estimation is based on the response of the respondent’s sheep householder. This indicate that helminths can affect the economy of the societies through affecting meat production which means decrease productivity, weight loss, buying anthelminthic, slow growth rate, death of sheep and morbidity. In general, helminths can cause economic loss through reduced productivity and increased mortality. The study is in agreement with the research conducted by Perry et al. 23 and Getachew et al.,10. And also the study conducted by Pedreira et al.,22; Odoie et al.,21 and Chaudhary et al.6 says the loss through reduced productivity is related to reduction of food intake, slow growth rate, cost of treatment and control of helminthosis; Mcleod 16 says reduced weight gain is also the impact of helminths on the economy. Study in Germany Severe morbidity and mortality; decreased body weight gains; decreased fertility; decreased birth weight; decreased meat and wool production; and increased expenditures on anthelmintics and veterinary care can causes economic loss 8.

    From data obtained from the study area helminths class based laboratory examination that cause economic loss from the total of 149 helminths species were Trematoda 51 (34.23%), Nematode 45 (30.2%), Cestoda 15 (10.07%) and the combination of them were accounts about 38 (25.23%). Based on this Trematoda and Nematode were the highest helminths that cause economic loss, the next of them is the combination of all parasitic helminths and Cestoda was the least cause of economic loss at the study area. This study agreed with study conducted by Tesfaye 32, at Metema woreda that says, the most important helminths parasites that cause economic loss are nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes. These parasites are a worldwide problem for both small and large-scale farmers, but there is a greater instance in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular due to the availability of a wide range of agro-ecological factors suitable for diversified hosts and parasite species.

    Sheep represent an important source of income in many countries 19 and although the effects of parasitism on production have been recognized 5 there is still a need to quantify these losses. Anthelmintic resistance and climate change is likely to alter the geographical distribution of parasites and their impact on production animals, thus increasing the need for a clear understanding of the cost of parasitism in order to develop sustainable control strategies 18.At the study area people can control helminths parasite by their own method of controlling through traditional way. Mostly they use traditional medicine to control helminthes.

    Conclusion

    Helminthosis is a major constraint to animal health and productivity, causing significant and insidious economic losses. The helminths infections with trematode and nematode parasites are high prevalence of infection, whereas the Cestoda parasites are least prevalence of infection are identified. Based on their species trematodes species that are Fasciola species, Schistosoma species and Paramphistomum species are identified; nematodes species Haemonchus species, Strongyloides species, Nematodirus species and Trichostrongylus species and the cestodes species are Moniezia species and Taenia species are identified. The species that have high prevalence are Fasciola species, Haemonchus species and Strongyloides species, while Nematodirus species and Trichostrongylus species have the least prevalence. From the five study kebele, the sheep is mostly affected by helminths in Hagelogidami, Chalejima and Welenelemu kebele, whereas Bila and Harogodisa are the two kebeles which are least affected.The prevalence of helminths during the season helminths have high prevalence during the summer season than winter season. Due to these adverse effects associated with the use of commercial anthelminthic, the community is trying to search the other alternative of helminth control strategies which is the use of medicinal plants to control helminths. As a result traditional anthelmintic medicinal plants could contribute a lot to the treatment to control parasitic helminths in animals, and from the five kebeles of the study area 11 plant species identified were used as to control helminths parasites.

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