Journal of Clinical Research in HIV AIDS and Prevention
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Research Article | Open Access
  • Available online freely | Peer Reviewed
  • Prevalence of Hiv Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Ajiko Medical Clinic, Damaturu, Nigeria

    Sabina Khanam 1      

    1Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, Nigeria

    Abstract

    Human immunodeficiency viruses causes HIV infection in humans belongs to two species of Lentivirus. It damages the cells of immune system which leads to weak immune system and the ability to fight from infections and diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence rate of HIV infection among pregnant women of different age groups attending Ajiko medical clinic, Damaturu, Nigeria. The prevalence rate was maximum (12.5%) in 36-45 age group and minimum (5%) in 26-35 age group but their was no HIV infection in 15-25 age group. The overall prevalence rate among pregnant women was 4%. General knowledge , training and campaigns of HIV prevention need to be tailored towards older women of age group 36-45 because of high prevalence rate.

    Received 29 Mar 2019; Accepted 11 May 2019; Published 13 May 2019;

    Academic Editor:Bechan Sharma, Professor of Biochemistry & Nodal Officer: Intellectual Property Rights Cell, Chairman: Core Committee-Environmental Science, University of Allahabad, India

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by: Single-blind

    Copyright©  2019 Sabina Khanam

    License
    Creative Commons License    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Sabina Khanam (2019) Prevalence of Hiv Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Ajiko Medical Clinic, Damaturu, Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Research In HIV AIDS And Prevention - 3(4):7-9.
    Download as RIS, BibTeX, Text (Include abstract )
    DOI10.14302/issn.2324-7339.jcrhap-19-2746

    Introduction

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the major disease spread through certain body fluids that weakens the immune system by destroying the cells such as CD4 cells or T cells of human immune system. It is one of the major health problem worldwide. Around two-third (68%) population of sub-Sahara Africa is affected by Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is 12% of the total world’s population. The prevalence rate of HIV infection in Nigeria is around 3.6% which is third largest number of HIV infected people in the world 1, 6, 7.

    Around 90% of HIV infection are caused through mother to child infection. In Nigeria nearly sixty thousand children are infected through transmission of HIV by their mother. Paediatric HIV has been virtually wiped out in many developing countries. Large decrease in the number of HIV infection among children was found in Ghana and South Africa from 2009 to 2012. In Nigeria only 58% of pregnant women received antenatal care in 2008 while in 2009 only 22% of HIV positive pregnant women received antiretroviral for the prevention of HIV transmission to her baby and 13% of pregnant women were tested for HIV infection 2, 4, 9, 10

    Material and Method

    Study Area

    The study was carried out in Damaturu, the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. According to 2006 census the population of Damaturu is 88,100 with 25.2 degree Centigrade average temperature.

    Sample Size

    Fifty pregnant women attending Ajiko Medical Clinic, Damaturu were target for the study. Their age and HIV infection were analysed.

    HIV Screening

    Women attending Ajiko Medical Clinic, Damaturu were tested for HIV infection by using ELISA test. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated.

    Prevalence Rate

    Prevalence Rate was Calculated by Using the Following Formula



    Results and Discussion

    A total of fifty pregnant women were tested for HIV infection of which two women were HIV infected. The prevalence rate was maximum (12.5%) in 36-45 age group and minimum (5%) in 26-35 age group but their was no HIV infection was found in 15-25 age group (Table 1). 5 reported that 70% of pregnant women were aware of HIV infection and 33% women knew about the main modes of HIV transmission.

    Table 1. Showing Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women of different age groups
    Age Group No. of cases (N) HIV positive (n) Prevalence (%)
    15-25 22 0 0
    26-35 20 1 5
    36-45 8 1 12.5
    Total15-45 50 2 Overall Prevalence Rate4

    Studied 1.03% of seroprevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in North India which is much higher than other studies8. Some of the researchers revealed that about 73% 0f the health care providers studied that a baby born by the HIV positive mother invariably would be infected 3.

    Conclusion

    In this study the overall prevalence rate among pregnant women was 4%. General knowledge , training and campaigns of HIV prevention need to be tailored towards older women of age group 36-45 because of high prevalence rate.

    References

    1.Etukumana E A, Thacher T D, Sagay A S. (2011) Obstetrics risk of HIV infection among antenatal women in a rural Nigerian hospital. , Niger. Med. J 52(1), 24-27.
    2.Hampanda K. (2013) Vertical Transmission of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: Applying Theoretical Framework to Understand Social Barriers to PMTCT. ISRN Infectious Diseases; Volume 2013, Article ID 420361, 5 pages..
    3.Hengten V, Jaureguiberry S, Ramiliarisoa A, Andrianantoandro V, Belee M. (2002) Knowledge, attitude and practices of health personnel with regard to HIV/AIDS in Tamatave (Madagascar). Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 95(2), 103-8.
    4.Joint United (2011) Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Countdown to zero: Globalplan for the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive. , Geneva, UNAIDS 2011-2015.
    5.Kunte A, Misra V, Paranjape R, Mansukhani N, Padbidri V et al. (1999) HIV Seroprevalence and awareness about AIDS among pregnant women in rural areas of Pune district. , Maharashtra, India, Indian J Med Res 110, 115-22.
    6.. PMTCThttp://www.unicef.org/aids/files/Nigeria_PMTCTFactsheet_2010.pdf accessed24/10/2013 , Nigeria:
    7.Quaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins Jr R, Owens D K. (2009) Screening for HIV in health care setting:. , A Guidance Statement from the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association. Ann Intern Med 150, 125-131.
    8.Sibia P, Mohi M K.Kumar A (2016). Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus among antenatal women in one of the institute of Northern India. , J. Clin Diagn Res,10,QC 08-9.
    9.World Health Organisation (2013). Progress report on the global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive.
    10.World Health Organisation PMTCT Strategic Vision 2010-2015. Preventing mother to child transmission of HIV to reach the UNGASS and millennium Development Goals.