Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
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Research Article | Open Access
  • Available online freely | Peer Reviewed
  • Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Silver Oxide

    Dahryn Trivedi 1     Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 1     Alice Branton 1     Gopal Nayak 1     Snehasis Jana 2      

    1Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, USA.

    2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd.,Bhopal, India.

    Abstract

    Silver oxide (Ag2O) has the antimicrobial properties, which is insoluble in most of the solvents and sensitive to light. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of Ag2O powder using modern analytical techniques. The Ag2O sample was divided into two parts, one part of the sample was considered as the control sample, whereas the other part of the sample received the Biofield Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi and termed as a treated sample. The particle size values were significantly decreased by 26.70% (d10), 20.67% (d50), 18.7% (d90), and 20.57% D(43), hence, the specific surface area was significantly increased by 32.33% in the treated Ag2O sample than control sample. PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered from -94.93% to 6.18% and -54.19% to 54.89%, respectively, however, the average crystallite size was significantly decreased by 14.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated Ag2O was significantly decreased by 61.12% compared with the control sample.The total weight loss was significantly increased by 49.34%, hence, the residue amount was 4.05% less in the treated sample than the control sample.These results suggested that the Trivedi Effect® might introduce a new polymorphic form of Ag2O which would offer better solubility, absorption, and bioavailability of the pharmaceutical formulations and also be advantageous for the pharmaceutical industry when using it as a raw material.

     

    Received 22 Aug 2018; Accepted 09 Oct 2018; Published 12 Oct 2018;

    Academic Editor:Fatma Mady, Minia University Faculty of pharmacy, Egypt.

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by: Single-blind

    Copyright©  2018 Dahryn Trivedi, et al.

    License
    Creative Commons License    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana (2018) Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Silver Oxide. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Science And Technology - 1(4):13-24.
    Download as RIS, BibTeX, Text (Include abstract )
    DOI10.14302/issn.2328-0182.japst-18-2314

    Introduction

    Silver oxide (Ag2O) is a chemical compound used as a reagent in the laboratory reactions to synthesize other silver compounds (silver chloride, silver nitrate, etc.); as well as in organic chemistry as a mild oxidizing agent (i.e., oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids), and in silver-oxide batteries. It is integrated in fabrics used in surgery since it resists the growth of microorganisms 1, 2, 3. It is also used in concrete and in some swimming pools and spas to protect the water from unwanted microbes. Ag2O has enhanced antimicrobial properties, hence used as Ag2O ointment for difficult venous ulcerations, and also an important component of the total wound dressing, which has demonstrated improved microcirculation measurements and healing rate 4. Ag2O is very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the humidified air. This characteristic of Ag2O is extensively used in space missions. Ag2O nanostructure on porous silicon is used for the optoelectronic application. Ag2O is also used for the preparation of a pollution control filter for gas sensors, which absorbs airborne poisons and irritants 5, 6. The Ag2O is light sensitive, decomposes at lower temperatures (280°C), soluble in acid and alkali, slightly soluble in water, and insoluble in ethanol 1, 2, 3.

    Physicochemical properties of any objects have great importance for their stability and other application perspectives. The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment has been scientifically proved to have the significant impact on the physicochemical properties of various living and non-living object(s) 7, 8, 9. The Trivedi Effect® is natural and the only scientifically proven phenomenon in which a person can harness this inherently intelligent energy from the Universe and transmit it anywhere on the planet through the possible mediation of neutrinos 10. Due to the continuous movement of the electrically charged particles inside the body, a unique para-dimensional electromagnetic field is generated around the body of the living organism known as the “Biofield”. Biofield based Energy Healing Therapies have been accepted worldwide and reported with significant positive outcomes against various disease conditions 11. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) recommend and included the Energy therapy under the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) category in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as Qi Gong, Tai Chi, yoga, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, acupuncture, acupressure, relaxation techniques, guided imagery, Reiki, hypnotherapy, healing touch, Rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, naturopathy, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, homeopathy, aromatherapy, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer. The CAM has been accepted by the most of the U.S. population 12, 13. In the similar way, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment also had shown significant results in different research field, i.e., medical, nutraceutical/pharmaceutical sciences 14, 15, 16, 17, microbiology, biotechnology 18, 19, 20, 21, organic chemistry 22, 23, agriculture 24, 25, material science 26, 27, etc. Hence, this current study has been designed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on silver oxide powder using particle size analysis (PSA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ Differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG).

    Materials and Methods

    Chemicals and Reagents

    The silver oxide (Ag2O) powder was procured from Sigma Aldrich, India. Remaining chemicals used during the experiments were of analytical grade also purchased in India.

    Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Strategies

    The silver oxide powder considered as a test sample was divided into two parts. One part of the silver oxide powder sample was treated with the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely under standard laboratory conditions for 3 minutes, known as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment was provided through the healer’s unique energy transmission process by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi, USA, to one part of the test sample. Consequently, the other part of the test sample was considered as a control or untreated sample (Biofield Energy Treatment was not provided). Further, the control sample was treated with a “sham” healer for the best comparison with the results of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide. However, the sham healer did not have any knowledge about the Biofield Energy Treatment. After that, the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated silver oxide powder samples were kept in sealed conditions and characterized using PSA, PXRD, DSC, and TGA analytical techniques.

    Characterization

    Particle Size Analysis (PSA)

    The particle size analysis of silver oxide powder was performed on Malvern Mastersizer 2000, from the UK, with a detection range between 0.01 µm to 3000 µm using wet method 28, 29. The sample unit (Hydro MV) was filled with a dispersant medium (sunflower oil) and operated the stirrer at 2500 rpm. The PSA analysis of silver oxide was executed to obtain the average particle size distribution. Where, d(10) μm, d(50) μm, d(90) μm represent particle diameter corresponding to 10%, 50%, and 90% of the cumulative distribution. D(4,3) represents the average mass-volume diameter, and SSA is the specific surface area (m2/g). The calculations were done by using software Mastersizer Ver. 5.54.

    The percent change in particle size (d) for silver oxide powder at below 10% level (d10), 50% level (d50), 90% level (d90), and D(4,3) was calculated using the following equation 1:

    (1)

    Where dControland dTreatedare the particle size (μm) for at below 10% level (d10), 50% level (d50), and 90% level (d90) of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide samples, respectively.

    Percent change in surface area (S) was calculated using the following equation 2:

    (2)

    Where SControl and STreated are the surface area of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide, respectively.

    Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) Analysis

    The PXRD analysis of silver oxide powder was performed with the help of Rigaku MiniFlex-II Desktop X-ray diffractometer (Japan) 30, 31. The CuKα radiation source tube output voltage used was 30 kV, and tube output current was 15 mA. Scans were performed at room temperature. The average size of individual crystallites of Silver oxide was calculated from PXRD data using the Scherrer’s formula (3)

    G = kλ/βcosθ(3)

    Where k is the equipment constant (0.94), G is the crystallite size in nm, λ is the radiation wavelength (0.154056 nm for Kα1 emission), β is the full-width at half maximum (FWHM), and θ is the Bragg angle 32.

    Percent change in crystallite size (G) of silver oxide was calculated using the following equation 4:

    (4)

    Where GControl and GTreated are the crystallite size of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide samples, respectively.

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

    The DSC analysis of silver oxide was performed with the help of DSC Q200, TA instruments. The sample of ~0.5-2 mg was loaded to the aluminium sample pan at a heating rate of 10ºC/min from 30°C to 350°C 28, 29. The % change in melting point (T) was calculated using the following equation 5:

    (5)

    Where TControl and TTreated are the melting point of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide samples, respectively.

    Percent change in the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was calculated using following equation 6:

    (6)

    Where ΔHControland ΔHTreatedare the latent heat of fusion of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide samples, respectively.

    Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) / Differential Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTG)

    TGA/DTG thermograms of silver oxide were obtained with the help of TGA Q50 TA instruments. The sample of ~3-7 mg was loaded to the platinum crucible at a heating rate of 10ºC/min from 25°C to 1000°C with the recent literature 28, 29. The % change in weight loss (W) was calculated using the following equation 7:

    (7)

    Where WControl and WTreated are the weight loss of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide, respectively.

    The % change in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) (M) was calculated using the following equation 8:

    (8)

    Where MControl and MTreated are the Tmax values of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide, respectively.

    Results and Discussion

    Particle Size Analysis (PSA)

    The particle size and surface area analysis of both the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide were performed, and the comparative results are presented in Table 1. The particle size values of the control sample at d10, d50, d90, and D(4,3) were 29.113 µm, 54.856 µm, 94.65 µm, and 58.538 µm, respectively. Similarly, the particle sizes of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide at d10, d50, d90, and D(4,3) were 21.339 µm, 43.519 µm, 76.95 µm, and 46.499 µm, respectively. The particle size values in the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide was significantly decreased at d10,d50, d90,and D(4,3) by 26.70%, 20.67%, 18.7%, and 20.57%, respectively compared to the control sample (Table 1). Therefore, the specific surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide (0.176 m2/g) was significantly increased by 32.33% compared with the control sample (0.133 m2/g). It can be assumed that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might act as an external force for reducing the particle sizes of the silver oxide sample, hence increased the surface area. The particle size, shape, and surface area have a significant impact on the solubility, dissolution rate, absorption, bioavailability, and even the therapeutic efficacy of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds 33, 34. Thus, the Trivedi Effect® Treated silver oxide powder would show enhanced therapeutic properties in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical preparations and would be useful for the industry when it is used as a raw material for the manufacturing.

    Table 1. Particle size distribution of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide.
    Parameter d 10 (µm) d 50 (µm) d 90 (µm) D( 4,3) (µm) SSA (m 2 /g)
    Control 29.113 54.856 94.650 58.538 0.133
    Biofield Treated 21.339 43.519 76.950 46.499 0.176
    Percent change*(%) -26.70 -20.67 -18.70 -20.57 32.33

    d10, d50, and d90: particle diameter corresponding to 10%, 50%, and 90% of the cumulative distribution, D(4,3): the average mass-volume diameter, and SSA: the specific surface area.
    * denotes the percentage change in the Particle size distribution of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample.

    Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) Analysis

    The powder XRD experimental results of both the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide powder samples showed sharp and intense peaks in the respective diffractograms (Figure 1) which indicated that both the samples were crystalline. The control sample showed the peaks at Bragg’s angle (2θ) 18.52°, 20.49°, 26.53°, 32.65°, 33.59°, 37.87°, 39.51°, 54.7°, 65.23°, and 68.5° in the diffractogram (Figure 1). Similarly, the Biofield Energy Treated sample showed the peaks at Bragg’s angle (2θ) 18.73°, 20.83°, 26.74°, 32.95°, 33.81°, 37.29°, 39.76°, 54.96°, 65.44°, and 68.79° in the diffractogram (Figure 1). The highest peak intensity showed at 2θ equal to 32.65° in the control and 32.95° of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (Table 2, entry 4). The peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated sample were significantly altered compared to the control sample (Table 2). Overall, the peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide powder were significantly altered in the range from -94.93 to 6.18% compared to the control sample (Table 2). Similarly, the crystallite sizes of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide were significantly altered in the range from -54.19% to 54.89% compared to the control sample (Table 2). Overall, the average crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide powder (398.8 nm) was significantly decreased by 14.66% compared with the control sample (467.3 nm) (Table 2).

    Figure 1. PXRD diffractograms of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide.
    Figure 1.

    Table 2. PXRD data for the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide.
    Entry No. Bragg angle (°2 θ) Peak Intensity (%) Crystallite size (G, nm)
    Control Treated Control Treated % change a Control Treated % change b
    1 18.52 18.73 20.00 16.60 -17.00 590.00 353.00 -40.17
    2 20.49 20.83 12.10 11.70 -3.31 489.00 224.00 -54.19
    3 26.53 26.74 11.20 9.50 -15.18 605.00 436.00 -27.93
    4 32.65 32.95 550.00 584.00 6.18 487.00 422.00 -13.35
    5 33.59 33.81 91.00 80.00 -12.09 455.00 339.00 -25.49
    6 37.87 37.29 205.00 10.40 -94.93 500.00 568.00 13.60
    7 39.51 39.76 28.00 22.00 -21.43 273.00 245.00 -10.26
    8 54.70 54.96 120.00 127.00 5.83 505.00 521.00 3.17
    9 65.23 65.44 87.00 87.00 0.00 503.00 468.00 -6.96
    10 68.50 68.79 34.00 29.10 -14.41 266.00 412.00 54.89
    11 Average crystallite size 467.30 398.80 -14.66

    a denotes the percentage change in the peak intensity of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample.
    b denotes the percentage change in the crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample.

    The peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide powder sample were significantly altered when compared to the control sample. As per the literature, the peak intensity of any diffraction face on the crystalline compound changes according to the crystal morphology 35, and alterations in the PXRD pattern provide proof of polymorphic transitions 36, 37. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment probably produced the new polymorphic form of silver oxide via the mediation of neutrino oscillations 10. Different polymorphic forms of a compound have the significant effects on their physicochemical and thermodynamic properties like melting point, stability, and solubility 38, 39. Hence, the Trivedi Effect® Treated silver oxide would be a better option when used to design novel pharmaceutical formulations and also useful for the industry as a raw material for manufacturing.

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Analysis

    The DSC thermal analysis has been performed and the thermograms of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide showed a sharp endothermic peak at 200.7°C and 198.78°C, respectively (Figure 2 and Table 3). The experimental melting point well matches with the reported melting point 1. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was decreased by 0.96% compared with the control sample (Table 3).

    Figure 2. DSC thermograms of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide.
    Figure 2.

    Table 3. DSC data for both control and the Biofield Energy Treated samples of silver oxide.
    Sample Melting point (°C) ∆H (J/g)
    Control Sample 200.70 10.52
    Biofield Energy Treated 198.78 4.09
    % Change* -0.96 -61.12

    ΔH : Latent heat of fusion,
    * denotes the percentage change of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide with respect to the control sample.

    The latent heat of fusion (∆Hfusion) of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (4.09 J/g) was significantly decreased by 61.12% compared with the control sample (10.52 J/g) (Table 3). Any change in the molecular chains in the compound structure and any change in the crystal structure in the substance alter the latent heat of fusion 40. Therefore, it can be presumed that Dahryn Trivedi’s Biofield Energy Treatment might have disturbed the molecular chain strength and crystal structure of silver oxide. This could be the possible cause for declining the melting point and latent heat of fusion of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide sample compared to the control sample.

    Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) / Differential Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTG)

    The TGA thermograms of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide samples displayed two steps of thermal degradation (Figure 3). The total weight loss in the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide (11.32%) was increased significantly by 49.34% compared with the control sample (7.58%). Therefore, the residue amount was 4.05% less in the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide compared to the control sample (Table 4).

    Figure 3. TGA thermograms of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide.
    Figure 3.

    Table 4. TGA/DTG data of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated samples of silver oxide.
    Sample TGA DTG [Tmax (°C)]
    Total weight loss (%) Residue % 1st Peak 2nd Peak
    Control 7.58 92.42 168.32 394.58
    Biofield Energy Treated 11.32 88.68 163.16 391.8
    % Change* 49.34 -4.05 -3.07 -0.70

    * denotes the percentage change of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample,
    Tmax = the temperature at which maximum weight loss takes place in TG or peak temperature in DTG.

     

    Similarly, the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide exhibited two peaks (Figure 4) in the DTG thermograms. The maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) of the 1st peak of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide was decreased by 3.07% compared with the control sample. Likewise, the Tmax of the 2nd peak of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide was also decreased by 0.7% compared to the control sample (Table 4). Overall, the thermal stability of the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide declined compared with the control sample. It can be assumed that Dahryn Trivedi’s Biofield Energy Treatment might have disturbed the molecular bond strength of silver oxide, which resulted in the reduction of the thermal stability.

    Figure 4. DTG thermograms of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated silver oxide.
    Figure 4.

    Conclusion

    It has been observed that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has a significant impact on the particle size, surface area, peak intensities, crystallite size, and thermal behaviors of Ag2O. The particle size values of the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O powder were significantly decreased at d10, d50, d90, and D(4,3) by 26.70%, 20.67%, 18.7%, and 20.57%, respectively compared to the control sample. Therefore, the specific surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O powder was significantly increased by 32.33% compared with the control sample. The PXRD analysis of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O powder showed sharp and intense peaks in the diffractograms, indicating that both the samples were crystalline. The peak intensities and crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O powder were significantly altered in the range from -94.93 to 6.18% and -54.19% to 54.89%, respectively, compared with the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O powder was significantly decreased by 14.66% compared with the control sample. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O was slightly decreased compared with the control sample. But, the ∆Hfusion the treated Ag2O was significantly decreased by 61.12% compared with the control sample.The total weight loss was significantly increased in the Biofield Energy Treated sample by 49.34% as compared to the control sample. Therefore, the residue amount was 4.05% less in the treated Ag2O compared to the control sample.The Tmax of the 1st and 2nd peaks of the Biofield Energy Treated Ag2O sample were decreased by 3.07% and 0.7%, respectively compared with the control sample. The results suggested that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might introduce a new polymorphic form of Ag2O which would show better solubility, dissolution rate, absorption, and bioavailability of Ag2O in pharmaceutical preparations (i.e., ointments, wound dressing, etc.) and also be advantageous for the many industries (i.e., chemical, space research, nuclear submarines, optoelectronic, etc.) when used as a raw material.

    Acknowledgements

    The authors are grateful to Central Leather Research Institute, SIPRA Lab. Ltd., Trivedi Science, Trivedi Global, Inc., Trivedi Testimonials, and Trivedi Master Wellness for their assistance and support during this work.

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