Journal of New Developments in Chemistry

Journal of New Developments in Chemistry

Journal of New Developments in Chemistry

Current Issue Volume No: 4 Issue No: 1

Research Article Open Access Available online freely Peer Reviewed Citation Provisional

Dogonyaro-Leaf-Extract as Inhibitor for Aluminum Corrosion in Acid

1Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo-State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid: 0000-0003-1003-9710

2Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo-State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid: 0000-0003-0280-6764

3Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo-State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid:0000-0002-7731-8792

4Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo-State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid:0000-0002-2714-0906

5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, PMB 1526, Imo-State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid:0000-0002-6560-9277.

6Department of Chemical Engineering, Madonna University Nigeria, Akpugo Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid:0000-0001-6283-4711.

7Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. [email protected] orcid:0000-0002-0861-3536.


Background of this paper investigates dogonyaro-leaf-extract as inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 0.3-M hydrochloric acid, and its acceptability as original. In the methods, the extract was analyzed for phytochemicals and corrosion test performed on aluminum sheet before immersion in acid incorporated extract. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), tests were performed over frequency of 100 KHz–10 mHz and 10 mV peak to peak perturbation amplitude to obtain the corrosion potential. Tests were run at 30oC ± room temperature in aerated quiescent solutions. In weight loss method, coupons were suspended in aerated solutions before immersion in 20% mixture of sodium hydroxide and zinc dust to stop further corrosion. Morphology of the mirrorlike finished arid surface aluminum was measured with scanning electron microscope SEM. In the results, various phytochemicals were observed; significant effect of incorporating inhibitor on EIS data recorded and optimum extract efficiency was 99.46%, at 10 g/l, 60oC, within 6 hours. This result was validated and 99.3% efficiency obtained. Introduction of extract into acid corrodents caused increase of charge transfer resistance and reduced double layer capacitance. A warm arid clean coupon evolved after SEM test. In conclusion, there was increase in efficiency of inhibition as inhibitor concentration and temperature increased. Similarly, close responses towards the factors for Inhibition occur. Measured polarization showed that extract inhibited both cathodic and anodic reaction processes and thus, is classified as mixed type inhibitor. The investigations thus proved the extract as excellent corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in 0.3-M hydrochloric-acid.

Author Contributions
Received 16 Jan 2023; Accepted 23 May 2023; Published 17 Jun 2023;

Academic Editor: Karunamoorthy Jayamoorthy, St. Joseph's College of Engineering

Checked for plagiarism: Yes

Review by: Single-blind

Copyright ©  2023 ObibuenyiIfeanyiJohn, et al.

Creative Commons License     This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Ezeamaku U Luvia, Eze I Ochiagha, Odimegwu E Nkiru, Nwakaudu A Angela, Okafor S Amarachukwu et al. (2023) Dogonyaro-Leaf-Extract as Inhibitor for Aluminum Corrosion in Acid. Journal of New Developments in Chemistry - 4(1):18-29.

Download as RIS, BibTeX, Text (Include abstract )

DOI 10.14302/issn.2377-2549.jndc-23-4431


Hydrochloric-acid and other mineral-acids are widely used in industries to remove oxides of iron and rust during processes like acid cleaning, descaling, picking and oil well acidizing 2, 28. Metals and their alloys can be protected during service against these harsh environments by incorporating some substances into the solution in contact with the metal’s surface to restrain corrosion reaction and rate 35, 9, 20, 33, 40, 19. Organic compounds are used to inhibit corrosion of metals in aggressive environments 43, 23, 16, 29, 9. These organic inhibitors have palpable distinctiveness as they contain hetero-atoms like oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and polar-functional-groups 41, 27, 39, 21, 45, 46, 34, 24, 25, 13, 30, 15, 47, 6, 10.

However, virtually all organic corrosion inhibitors are not environmentally friendly. They are harsh and non-biodegradable. To minimize unfavorable effects of these organic-inhibitors, recent researchers geared toward developing environmentally acceptable, biodegradable, cheap and harsh-less inhibitors. Natural occurring substances from leaves and polymers can satisfy these requirements since some of them have been proved effective inhibitors of metal corrosion in acids 11, 18, 48. Some other researchers reported use of gums as inhibitors of mild steel, aluminum and carbon steel in hydrogen -sulphate and sodium hydroxide 44, 43, 1. It was also shown that guar gum inhibited corrosion of carbon steel up to efficiency of 93.88% and concentration 1,500 ppm. This indicates that guar-gum is a good corrosion inhibitor. Corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy AA6061 in sea water was improved using tapioca starch. This was analyzed by Rosliza and Wan Nik 36. Other researchers conducted their investigations with mild steel in hydrogen-sulphate and results obtained proved that starch is a good corrosion-inhibitor for mild steel 26, 37, 38, 31, 4.

This study is aimed at using water-extraction-method for dogonyaro leaves; and according to principle of similar compatibility, the dispersibility of extracts in acidic solution is very uniform and it aids the extracts’ inhibitory action. Dogonyaro leaves are common and can be sourced easily. Most importantly, the leaves are green, environmentally friendly, and does not cause damage to the ecological environment when used to inhibit corrosion. Weight loss method, surface-morphology, electrochemical methods, were used to insight corrosion inhibition performance of the extract. Structure of Salannin dogonyaro is given in Figure 1.

Figure 1.Chemical structure of Salannin dogonyaro
 Chemical structure of Salannin dogonyaro

Materials and Methods

Material Preparation

Corrosion test was performed on aluminum-sheet that was cut to 3 x 3 x 3 cm3 dimensions. This sheet was mechanically press-cut, punctured and inserted on the coupon-surface to hold the thread. Ethanol was used to de-grease the experimental coupons. They were cleansed with refined-water, dehydrated using acetone and kept inside desiccators. A solution of 0.3-M hydrochloric-acid was obtained by double-distilled-water and inhibited mixtures (2 g/L - 10 g/L) and was prepared by incorporating the appropriate quantity of dogonyaro-leaf-extract in one liter (1L) of acid-solution (blank).


Phytochemical Analysis

Qualitative analysis was carried out using the methods of Trease and Evans 42 and Harborne 14, to ascertain the presence of different phytochemicals in the leaves before quantitative analysis was carried out.

Electrochemical-Impedance-Spectroscopy EIS

Electrochemical measurements were carried out using Versa-STAT 3 model Potentio-stat/Galvano-stat with V3 studio software, all controlled by a computer. A standard electrochemical-cell with a separate compartment for the reference-electrode was used. The reference-electrode (a saturated-calom el-electrode SCE) was connected via a Luggin capillary. A graphite-rod was used as counter-electrode. All potentials are referred to the SCE. The electrolyte was maintained at room-temperature (30oC ±). All tests were run in aerated quiescent solutions. When the cell was turned on, current flowed into the electrolyte through the working electrode. Before EIS test, the electrode was allowed to corrode freely and its open-circuit-potential (OCP) was as a function of time, thirty minutes. After this time, a steady-state OCP, corresponding to the corrosion potential (Ecorr) of the working electrode, was obtained. Impedance was measured over a frequency range 100 KHz – 10 mHz and 10 mV peak-to-peak amplitude perturbation.

The inhibition-efficiency was calculated from the results obtained by using the following equation (1) 20, 4:

Where and are charge transfer resistances without and with addition of inhibitor, respectively.

Potentiodynamic-Polarization-Measurements PPM

Following the OCP tests, when the potential has reached a steady value (±250 mV), polarization measurements were taken using linear potential sweep technique at 0.5 mV s-1 scan rate. Polarization resistances Rp, were determined from slope of the linear curves obtained from polarization-curves and linear polarization measurements of the corrosion potential. The inhibition efficiency was estimated using the relation in equation 2:

Where and are corrosion-current-densities for inhibited and un-inhibited samples, respectively.

Gravimetric Measurement

In the weight-loss-method (Table 4), 250 ml beakers containing blank solution of 0.3-M hydrochloric-acid were prepared. Weighed coupons were suspended in 200 ml of test solutions in the beakers using wooden bars and twines, and later kept under aerated condition. The coupons were progressively retrieved at twenty four-hour intervals, for seven days. At end of study, the coupons were retrieved, immersed in 20% sodium-hydroxide-solution containing 200 g/l of zinc-dust, scrubbed with bristle-brush, washed, dried and reweighed. This was done to stop further corrosion reaction. The weight-loss-results were calculated as the difference between the final weight and the initial weight. The values recorded were mean values of triplicates determination.


Scanning-electron-microscope SEM, (XL-30FEG) was used to investigate the morphology of aluminum samples by exposing its surface to acid solutions. Aluminum specimens, dimensioned, were consecutively ground with abrasive paper of varied grades of silicon-carbide and refined with a 3 ml diamond pasted cloth to get a mirror-like finished surface. The uncontaminated coupons were immersed for four hours in the raw acid solution with and without 4.0 g/l extract. The specimen was cleaned, and made arid in warm air before the SEM examination.

Results and discussions

Qualitative Result of Extract-Phytochemicals

As shown in Table 1, qualitative analysis of the extracts shows presence of phytochemicals in various degrees and are denoted with symbols: +++ (highly concentrated), ++ (concentrated), + (in traces), and – (absence or too negligible). The difference in results may be attributed to biochemical variations of the plant species 5.

Table 1. Qualitative analysis of the extract
Parameters Phytate% Flavonoid% Saponin% Alkaloid% Tannin% Steroid% Carbohydrate% Protein% Resin%
Dogonyaro + ++ ++ ++ +++ - + + -

Electrochemical Measurements for Aluminum in Extract

EIS experiment was carried out in 0.3-M hydrochloric-acid with and without the extract. Nyquist plot presented was recorded after 3600 seconds at the respective OCP, to reach a steady-state of the solution. Results revealed significant effect of incorporation of inhibitor on EIS data. The plots generally comprise one large depressed capacitive loop at high frequency HFCL, and a low frequency inductive loop LFIL. The HFCL is related to charge transfer process of corrosion reaction, including formation of an oxide-film; while LFIL may be attributed to surface relaxation processes due to adsorption of intermediate products on the oxide-film 17, 3.

The ionic conductivity and dielectric properties of oxide-film means that it can be represented as a parallel circuit of a resistor and a capacitor. The observed depression of the semicircle with center

under the real axis is typical for solid metal electrodes that show frequency dispersion 17, 31. When such a non-ideal frequency response is present, the capacitance of the oxide-film is replaced by a constant phase element (CPE). Such CPE accounts for the deviations from ideal dielectric behavior and is related to surface in-homogenities.

Z-simp-win software, was used to analyze the plot for aluminum in un-inhibited acid by fitting to the equivalent circuit model R (QR). A similar circuit but with one inductive element R (QR (LR)) was used to analyze the plot for the leaf-inhibited-system.

The electrochemical parameters derived from the plots in Figure 2, revealed that introduction of extract into acid corrodents caused increase of charge-transfer-resistance, increase in the semicircle and reduced double-layer capacitance.

Figure 2.EIS of aluminum in 0.3 M hydrochloric acid with and without inhibitor
 EIS of aluminum in 0.3 M hydrochloric acid with and without inhibitor

These are clear evidences of corrosion inhibition. The last two could be attributed to the formation of barrier (oxide-film). This barrier also enhances charge-transfer resistance in the acid. Hence, the observed increase in inhibition efficiency. The electrochemical parameters derived from the Nyquist plots are given in Table 2

Table 2. Parameters of EIS of aluminum with and without inhibitor.
System Rs (Ωcm2) RL1 (Ωcm2) Rct (Ωcm2) Qdl(Ω-1sn cm2) L
0.3 M HCl 2.89 5.5 315 2.59 4.38
50 mg/ DL 5.83 2437 2780 3.72 1465
1000 mg/L DL 6.33 2209 3219 1.84 2392

Potentio-dynamic Polarization Results for Aluminum on the Extract

Two extract concentrations were introduced into the electrolytes in a bid to determine the extract’s influence on aluminum corrosion. Figure 3 shows features of active–passive transition especially at positive potentials, though the passive region is not well defined. Addition of extract does not significantly affect corrosion potential in the acid environment. The extract shows significant effect on cathodic hydrogen ion-reduction by decreasing the current density at all potentials within the cathodic region in the solution. It’s effect on the anodic reaction is negligible. These findings from Table 3 suggest that the extract functions mainly as a mixed-type inhibitor.

Figure 3.Polarization curves of aluminum in acid with or without inhibitor
 Polarization curves of aluminum in acid with or without inhibitor

Table 3. Polarization Parameters of aluminum in acid.
System Ecorr(mV vs SCE) Icorr(µA/cm2) % IE
0.3 M HCl -805 187.2  
50 mg/ DL -789 17.6 90.6
1000 mg/L DL -746 10.8 94.2

Gravimetric Measurement Results


There was dissolution of aluminum coupons in acid at various temperatures, shown in Table 4 The weight-losses can be controlled by addition of an inhibitor. The inhibitor’s effectiveness proved the extract as good corrosion inhibitor and can be used for metals in other media example, sulfuric acid medium.

Table 4. Values of aluminum weight-loss at various temperatures in acid
  Inhibitor-Conc. g/ 30oC 40oC 50oC 60oC
  Blank 0.087 0.174 -  
2 0.027 0.032 0.041 0.050
4 0.022 0.025 0.032 0.038
6 0.017 0.019 0.023 0.027
8 0.013 0.014 0.017 0.019
10 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.016

Inhibition Efficiency

The inhibition efficiency was determined when corrosion rates were compared in the blank and in the

inhibited solution. From the relationship between concentrations and inhibition efficiency increase in extract’s concentrations increased efficiency and highest being 97.22% obtained at 10 g/L. Similarly, efficiency increased with temperature, till 50oC beyond which little decrease occurred.

Corrosion Rate

At different temperatures, concentration effects of extracts were varied to determine the corrosion rate of aluminum in acid. This indicates potency reduction with temperature. Formation of a stable surface by the corroded surface led to prevention of diffusion of the diluted acid in the metal surface. Concentration of the extracts also reduced corrosion rate of aluminum.

Mathematical Model of Inhibition Efficiency

The IE’s model of the extracts is shown in equation 3, where the affiliation of the factors was revealed. This model forecasted the comeback for any given factor. Positive signs, the highest being 2, represent synergistic A, and negative signs antagonistic C, outcome as significant terms.

E. = +95.84 +22.20*A + 9.83*C – 21.22*A2 – 21.22*A*C (3)

For the optimum parameters, the extract’s efficiency was 99.46%, at 10 g/l, 60oC, and within 6 hours. Results were validated and confirmed by conducting additional experiments with the factors, and the measured efficiency of 99.30% obtained was close to the predicted value.

Sem Analysis

Micrographs of the coupons immersed in acid mixed with extract were shown as plates 1a, 1b and 1c in Figure 4. 1a is as received, no immersion. 1b is without extract and 1c is with extract. Effects of these are respectively, the smooth image coupon; rough surfaced coupon due to dissolution in acid and reduced surface of the coupon’s roughness due to introduction of inhibitor. Therefore, the micrographs may have connection with the results of the weight-loss method. This is in line with the work of Loto, and Popoola 22; and it proved the extract to be a mixed-type inhibitor.

Figure 4.Plate 1- images of Aluminum surface after immersion at 27oC in acid.
 Plate 1- images of Aluminum surface after immersion at 27oC in acid.


There was increase in efficiency of inhibition when concentration of inhibitor and temperature increased. There are close responses towards the factors for the inhibition of corrosion in acid medium. Polarization measurement showed that extract inhibited both cathodic and anodic reaction processes and thus, classified as mixed-type inhibitor. From these investigations, this extract proved to be an excellent corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in 0.3-M hydrochloric-acid.

Conflict of interest

“We, the authors, have stated explicitly that there are no financial or commercial conflicts of interest in connection with this article”.

Data availability statement

“Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.”


  1. 1.Abdallah M. (2004) Guar gum as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in sulphuric acid solutions”. , Portug Electrochim Acta 22, 161-175.
  1. 2.Ahamad I, Prasad R, M A Quraishi. (2010) Quraishi, Adsorption and inhibitive properties of some new Mannich bases of Isatin derivatives on corrosion of mild-steel in acidic media”. , Corros Sci 52, 1472-1481.
  1. 3.V C Anadebe, C S Okafor, O D. (2020) Electrochemical, molecular dynamics, adsorption studies and anticorrosion activities of Moringa leaf bio-molecules on carbon steel in alkaline and acid environment”. , Chemical Data Collections 100437, 10-1016.
  1. 4.V C Anadebe, C S Okafor, E Onukwuli O D Abeng F, N A Okafor. (2020) Electrochemical kinetics, MD-simulation and multi-input single-output (MISO) modeling using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) prediction for dexamethasone drug as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild-steel in 2 M hydrochloric-acid electrolyte”. , Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 115, 251-265.
  1. 5.G O Anyanwu, Nisar-ur-Rehman Onyeneke C E, Rauf K. (2015) Medicinal plants of the genus Anthocleista. A review of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology”. , Journal of Ethnopharmacology 175, 648-667.
  1. 6.Bahlakeh G, Dehghani A, Ramezanzadeh B, Ramezanzadeh M. (2019) Highly effective mild-steel corrosion inhibition in 1M hydrochloric-acid solution by novel green aqueous-mustard seed extract: experimental, electronic-scale DFT and atomic-scale MC/MD explorations”. , Journal of Molecular Liquid 293, 111559.
  1. 7.Behpour M Ghoreishi S M, Gandomi-Niasar A, Soltani N, Salavati-Niasari M. (2009) The inhibition of mild-steel corrosion in hydrochloric-acid media by two Schiff base compounds”. , Journal of Material Science 44, 2444-2453.
  1. 8.Behpour M Ghoreishi S M, Khayatkashani M, Soltani N. (2009) The effect of two oleo-gum resin exudate from Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum on mild-steel corrosion in acidic media”. , Corrosion Science 53, 2489-2501.
  1. 9.C G Dariva, Galio A F. (2014) Corrosion inhibitors–principles, mechanisms and applications”, developments in corrosion protection. intech
  1. 10.Dehghani A, Bahlakeh G, B A Ramezanzadeh. (2019) Detailed electrochemical/theoretical exploration of the aqueous Chinese gooseberry fruit shell extract as a green and cheap corrosion inhibitor for mild-steel in acidic solution”. , Journal of Molecular Liquid 282, 366-384.
  1. 11.Ezeamaku U, O I Eze, F N Uzondu, Nwakaudu A, O D. (2019) Investigating the Inhibitive Powers of Orange Leaf Extract in Corrosion Studies of Mild-Steel Metal in hydrochloric-acid”. , IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) 12, 59-66.
  1. 12.Fu J, Zang H, Wang Y, Li S, Chen T. (2012) Experimental and theoretical study on the inhibition performances of quinoxaline and its derivatives for the corrosion of mild-steel in hydrochloric-acid”. , Ind Eng. Chem Res 51, 6377-6386.
  1. 13.Habibiyan A. (2020) Facile size and chemistry-controlled synthesis of mussel-inspired bio-polymers based on Polydopamine Nanospheres: application as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors for mild-steel against aqueous acidic solution". , Journal of Molecular Liquid 298, 111974.
  1. 14.J B Harborne. (1998) A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis”. Phytochemical Methods, 3rd Edition, Chapman , London .
  1. 15.Hsissou R, Benhiba F, Dagdag O, M El Bouchti, Nouneh K. (2020) Development and potential performance of prepolymer in corrosion inhibition for carbon steel in 1.0-M hydrochloric-acid: outlooks from experimental and computational investigations”. , Journal of Colloid Interface Science 574, 43-60.
  1. 16.M H Hussin, M H Kassim. (2010) Electrochemical studies of mild-steel corrosion-inhibition in aqueous solution by uncaria gamber extract”. , Journal of Physical Science: 21(1), 1-13.
  1. 17.M, M C Nwandu, B O Kelechukwu, A N Lebe, A C Maduawuchi. (2011) Experimental and theoretical assessment of the inhibiting action of Aspilia Africana extract on the corrosion of aluminum alloy (AA3003) in hydrochloric-acid”. , Journal of Material Science 47, 2559-2572.
  1. 18.K S, Elsayed A. (2003) Inhibition effect of some polymers on the corrosion of cadmium in hydrochloric-acid solution”. , Journal of Applied Polymer Science 88, 866-871.
  1. 19.Kumar R, Kumar S. (2018) Erosion and hot corrosion phenomena in thermal power plant and their preventive methods: a study”, Asian review of mechanical engineering. 7, 38-45.
  1. 20.W H Li, He Q, L Zhang S T Pei C, R. (2008) Some new triazole derivatives as inhibitors for mild-steel corrosion in acidic medium”, journal of applied electrochemistry. 38, 289-295.
  1. 21.Lgaz H, I M Chung, A, Salghi R. (2020) Improved corrosion resistance of mild-steel in acidic solution by hydrazone derivatives: an experimental and computational study”. , Arabian Journal of Chemistry 13, 2934-2954.
  1. 22.C A Loto, Popoola A P I. (2012) Plant extracts corrosion inhibition of Aluminum alloy in hydrogen-sulphate”. , Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Science 65, 299-308.
  1. 23.Machnikova E Whitmire K H, Hackerman N. (2008) Corrosion inhibition of carbon-steel in hydrochloric-acid by furan derivatives”. , Electrochim Acta 53, 6024-6032.
  1. 24.K Mayakrishnan Prabakaran S H, Hemapriy Venkatesan, Chung Ill-Min. (2016) Evaluation of polyphenol composition and anti-corrosion properties of Crypto-stegia grandiflora plant extract on mild-steel in acidic medium”. , Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry 37, 47-56.
  1. 25.Saravanan P, Jayamoorthy K, Kumar S A. (2016) . , Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices 1(3), 367-378.
  1. 26.Mobin M, M A Khan, Parveen M. (2011) Inhibition of mild-steel corrosion in acidic medium using starch and surfactants additives. , Journal of Applied Polymer Science 121, 1558-1565.
  1. 27.Muthukrishnan P, Jeyaprabha B, Prakash P. (2013) Corrosion inhibition of Leucaen Leucocephala pod on mild-steel in sulphuric-acid solution”. , Acta Metallurgica Sinicam (English Letters) 26, 416-424.
  1. 28.S E Nataraja, T V Venkatesha, Manjunat K, Poojary B, M K Pavithra. (2011) Inhibition of the corrosion of steel in hydrochloric-acid solution by some organic molecules containing the methyl-thiophenyl moiety”. , Corrosion Science 53, 2651-2659.
  1. 29.N O Obi-Egbedi, I B Obot. (2011) Inhibitive properties, thermodynamic and quantum chemical studies of alloxazine on milds-teel corrosion in hydrogen-sulphate”. , Corrosion Science 53, 263-275.
  1. 30.L O Olasunkanmi, E. (2020) Experimental and computational studies on propanone derivatives of quinoxalin-6-yl-4, 5-dihydropyrazole as inhibitors of mild-steel corrosion in hydrochloric-acid”. , Journal of Colloid Interface Science 561, 104-116.
  1. 31.O D, V C Anadebe, C S Okafor. (2020) Optimum prediction for inhibition efficiency of Sapium ellipticum-leaf-extract as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum alloy (AA 3003) in hydrochloric-acid solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and response surface methodology”. , Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 34(1), 175-191.
  1. 32.Ouariachi E I Paolini E, J M Elidrissi, Bouyanzer A, Hammouti A. (2010) Adsorption properties of Rosmarinus of ficinalis oil as green corrosion inhibitors on C-38 steel in 0.5 M hydrogen sulphate”. , Acta Metal. Sin. (Engl. Lett.) 23(1), 13-20.
  1. 33.Ouici H Tourabi M, Benali O, Selles C, Jama C. (2017) Adsorption and corrosion inhibition properties of 5-amino 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-2-thiol on the mild-steel in hydrochloric-acid medium: thermodynamic, surface and electrochemical studies”, journal of electroanalytical chemistry. 803, 125-134.
  1. 34.Prabakaran M, S H Kim, Kalaiselvi K, Hemapriya V, I M Chung. (2016) Highly efficient Ligularia fischeri green extract for the protection against corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium: electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations”. , Journal of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineering 59, 553-562.
  1. 35.K Radojčić I Berković, Kovač S, Vorkapić-Furač J. (2008) Natural honey and black radish juice as tin corrosion inhibitors”, corrosion science. 50, 1498-1504.
  1. 36.Rosliza R, Wan N W B. (2010) Improvement of corrosion resistance of (AA6061) alloy by tapioca starch in seawater”. , Curr Appl Physics 10, 221-229.
  1. 37.Saravanan P, Duraibabu D, Jayamoorthy K, Suresh S, Kumar S A. (2018) . , Silicon 10(2), 555-565.
  1. 38.A K Singh. (2012) Inhibition of mild-steel corrosion in hydrochloric-acid solution by 3-(4-((Z)-Indolin-3-ylideneamino) phenylimino. , indolin-2-one”, Industrial Engineering Chemical Research 51, 3215-3223.
  1. 39.Singh A, A R, D S Chauhan, M A Quraishi, Lgaz H. (2020) Comprehensive investigation of steel corrosion inhibition at macro/micro level by ecofriendly green corrosion inhibitor in 15% HCl medium”. , Journal of Colloid Interface Science 560, 225-236.
  1. 40.M, S A Umoren, I, A P Udoh. (2010) Inhibitive and adsorption behavior of carboxymethyl cellulose on mild-steel corrosion in sulphuric-acid solution”. , Corrosion Science 52, 1317-1325.
  1. 41.Tan B, Zhang S, Qiang Y, Li W, Li H. (2020) Experimental and theoretical studies on the inhibition properties of three diphenyl disulfide derivatives on copper corrosion in acid medium”. , Journal of Molecular Liquid 298, 111975.
  1. 42.G E Trease, W C Evans. (1989) . Pharmacognosy” 11th Edition , Bailliere Tindall, London 45-50.
  1. 43.S A Umoren, I B Obot, E, P C Okafor, Ogbobe O. (2006) Gum-Arabic as a potential corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in alkaline medium and its adsorption characteristics”. , Anti Corrosion Methods and Materials 53, 277-282.
  1. 44.S A Umoren. (2008) Inhibition of aluminum and mild-steel corrosion in acidic medium using gum-Arabic. , Cellulose” 15, 751-761.
  1. 45.Venkatesan H, M P Hemapriya, Parameswari Kandasamy, Chitra Subramaniyan, Seung-Hyun Kim. (2016) Dry and wet lab analysis on benzo-fused heterocyclic compounds as effective corrosion inhibitors for mild-steel in acidic medium”. , Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry 40, 106-117.
  1. 46.P M Dasam, Parameswari K, Chitra S, Jayamoorthy K. (2016) . , DJ Journal of Engineering Chemistry and Fuel 1(4), 1-16.
  1. 47.Zahra S Mohammad Ramezanzadeh, Ramezanzadeh B, GhasemBahlakeh. (2019) Use of Rosa canina fruit extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild-steel in 01M hydrochloric-acid solution: A complementary experimental, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics investigation”. , Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry 69, 18-31.
  1. 48.Jayamoorthy K, Saravanan P, Vaddi Seshagiri Rao, Rajagopalan N R, Sathish Rengarajan. (2021) Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry. ,