Medulloblastoma is a type of cancerous tumor that originates in the cerebellum, located in the lower back of the brain. It is a type of neuroepithelial tumor, meaning that the cells that make up the tumor are derived from the embryonic neural tube. Medulloblastomas are mostly seen in children and represent the most common malignant brain tumor among this age group.
The symptoms of medulloblastoma include headache, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) and a biopsy, which involves the removal of a small piece of the tumor for examination under a microscope.
Treatment for medulloblastoma typically involves surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The goal of treatment is to rid the brain of as much tumor as possible to prevent recurrence, while also preserving neurological function.
Ongoing research in neurology and neuro-oncology is focused on identifying the molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma, which may help to determine optimal treatment plans for patients. Additionally, there is ongoing research around the use of immunotherapy as a possible new therapy for medulloblastoma.
Overall, medulloblastoma is a serious form of brain tumor that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Advances in neurology and neuro-oncology are making it possible to more accurately diagnose and effectively treat this disease, offering hope to patients and their families.
Newly-Detected Solitary Bony Lytic/Sclerotic Lesion with Soft Tissue Mass in a Previously Treated Case of High-Risk Medulloblastoma: Importance of Contemporary Pathology Techniques to Differentiate Second Malignant Neoplasm from Extra-Neuraxial Metastasis