The discovery of Schistosoma parasites in humans was in 1851 by Dr. Theodor Bilharz in Cairo, and the demonstration of their life cycle by Dr. Robert T. Leiper in Egypt in 1915 1. The great interest of European archeologists and historians in Egypt and the relative neglect of other civilizations in Africa also contributed to the view that Schistosomasis and several other infectious diseases originated in the lower Nile valley 2. Schistosomasis disease is widely prevalent among waterborne diseases and is considered next to malaria, affecting more than 74 countries and 200 million people with 600 million people being exposed to the infection 3. Urinary Schistosomasis is caused by Schistosomasis haematobium and intestinal Schistosomasis by any of the organisms S. intercalatum, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi 4. Life cycle: Schistosomasis is a parasitic infection leads to chronic ill health. Infection is acquired from contaminated freshwater containing the larval forms (cercariae) of blood flukes, known as Schistosomasis. The centimeter long worms mature in the human bladder and intestines, laying eggs that can cause massive damage. Once released by the body in to water through feces and urine, the eggs hatch and their larvae (miracidia) penetrate suitable snail hosts. The cercariae emerge from the snail into water from where they penetrate a human host within seconds, thereby perpetuating the life cycle 5. Signs and symptoms: Disease due to schistosomiasis depends on the infecting species and the intensity of infection. Acute Schistosomasis occurs 2 to 12 weeks post infection and symptoms last for periods varying from 1 day to a month or more; recurrence of symptoms 2 or 3 weeks later is common. Between 40% and 95% of individuals not previously exposed to infection develop symptoms which include fever, malaise, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea and urticaria. Many have eosinophilia. After the initial acute onset, most become asymptomatic, although those with S haematobium infections may develop microscopic or macroscopic haematuria. Rare complications result from ectopic deposition of eggs in the spinal cord and brain. Most travelers are only lightly infected and are therefore often asymptomatic and unlikely to develop the severe manifestations of chronic schistosomiasis. Severe disease occurs in patients with heavy and prolonged infection. Hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension, ascites and oesophageal varices may result from intestinal schistosomiasis, and frank haematuria with varying degrees of impairment of the urinary bladder and ureters may occur with S haematobium infections 6. Laboratory diagnosis is based on demonstrating the presence of parasite eggs in feces either by sedimentation techniques or by duodenal probe. Opisthorchis eggs are rather heavy and do not float readily in a saturated solution of sodium nitrate. of the immunologic tests, enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is used most often. Assays to detect circulating antibodies for . Viverrini have shown moderately high sensitivity (91% to 92%), but specificity of opisthorchiasis 137 only 70% to 80%. viverrinimetabolic antigen in stool samples yielded slightly greater sensitivity than the observation of eggs in feces and proved to be capable of detecting infections on the basis of a single specimen 7. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and transmission intensity of schistosomiasis is determined by numerous factors including socio-economic, human behavior, ecology and biological factors which influence the interactions between human and animal hosts and life cycle stages of the parasites. Human water contact behaviors and transmission patterns .The various permanent and temporal water bodies existing in the country contribute significantly to the eco epidemiological transmission of schistosomiasis 8. The goal for the control of Schistosomasis of attaining a minimum target of regular administration of chemotherapy to at least 75% and up to 100% of all school-age children at risk of morbidity by 2010 . They have also indicated that WHO approach to combating should include “advocating new partnerships with organizations of the United Nations system, bilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector, and by continuing to provide international direction and coordination". January 2010 estimates indicate that less than 10%of the population at risk of morbidity receives praziquantel (PZQ) preventive chemotherapy 9. Prevention and Control of Schistosomasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis, can be prevented through the Creation of alternative, safe water sources to reduce infective water contact, proper disposal of feces and urine to prevent viable eggs from reaching bodies of water containing snail hosts, health education, information and communication to promote early care-seeking behavior, use of safe water and proper disposal of excreta, environmental management reduction of snail habitat and snail contact 10.