Journal of Agronomy and Research
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Research Article | Open Access
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    Response of Some Sunflower (Helianthus annuusL) Hybrid Cultivars as Influenced by Argel (Solenostemmaargel, Del. Hayne) and Nitrogen Under Irrigation in Sudan

    Abubaker H. M. Adam 1       Abdalla Adam Hassam Mohamed 2     Faiza M. A. Magid 3     Bahar Eldeen Z. Abakar 4     Mohamed M. A. Mohamed 5     Annas A. M. Al badawi 6    

    1Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Bahri- Khartoum North

    2Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Wealth and Irrigation –Khartoum State- Sudan

    3Department of Pests and Plant Health, College of Agriculture, University of Bahri, Khartoum North, Sudan

    4Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Bahri- Khartoum North Sudan

    5Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Bahri- Khartoum North Sudan

    6Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Bahri- Khartoum North Sudan

    Abstract

    A field experiment was conducted during 2017/2018 to assess the effects of Argel (Solenostemmaargel, Del. Hayne) and Nitrogen fertilizer on the performance of two Sunflower Hybrid cultivars, with the objectives to exploit an easy, economic, and accessible organic fertilizer, the Argel in the phase of the continuous increasing prices of chemical fertilizers.. This experiment was laid out on spilt-split-plot experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Observations were taken on some agronomic traits (Plant height (m), Leaf area (LA), leaf Number (NL), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Mean Seed Weight). The results revealed that the application of Argel and Nitrogen fertilizer have significantly increased the leaf Area (F= 7.22, P < 0.001), Plant Height (F=2.68, P < 0.2001), Leaf Number (F= 3.90, P < 0.0024), Leaf Area Index (F= 3.83, P < 0.0026) and Mean Seed Weight of both Serena and Opera cultivars respectively compared to the control. However, the different treatments of Argel and Nitrogen reflected variable degree of increase for the studied parameters. The study concludes that Argel is very promising, therefore a further study with different levels of Argel including other plant parameters is recommended.

    Received 18 May 2020; Accepted 13 Jun 2020; Published 20 Jun 2020;

    Academic Editor:Raj Kishori, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow, U. P, India.

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by:Single-blind

    Copyright©  2020 Abubaker H. M. Adam, et al.

    License
    Creative Commons License    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Abubaker H. M. Adam, Abdalla Adam Hassam Mohamed, Faiza M. A. Magid, Bahar Eldeen Z. Abakar, Mohamed M. A. Mohamed et al. (2020) Response of Some Sunflower (Helianthus annuusL) Hybrid Cultivars as Influenced by Argel (Solenostemmaargel, Del. Hayne) and Nitrogen Under Irrigation in Sudan . Journal of Agronomy and Research - 3(1):32-45.
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    DOI10.14302/issn.2639-3166.jar-20-3388

    Introduction

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) is one of the most important and valuable oil crops in this world. It ranks the 4th oil seed plants, preceded by soybean, oil palm and rapeseed plant 1,2. Botanically, it is a native plant of North America. The plant belongs to order Asterales, family Asteraceae and genus Helianthus3. It is classified as annual or perennial plant. Some species can grow to a height of 120 in. The stem is unbranched in domesticated cultivars, but branched in the upper part in wild plants. The plant has erect stem with broadleaf. Leaves are dentate, petiolated. The lower leaves are opposite and ovate. The plants bear one head with bright yellow ray florets at the outside and yellow disc florets inside. Some ornamental cultivars  have red-colored ray florets 4. During the growth, sunflowers tilt during the day to face the sun, but stop once they begin blooming. This phenomenon enables the plant to utilize more sunlight in the process of photosynthesis, and it called heliotropism5

    The seeds contain of excellent quality and high oil content (40-50%), high unsaturated fatty acid concentration, low linolenic acid content, and 30% digestible protein6. They have several uses, among these, human use; like cocking oil, snack food, beside baking uses(granola bars, multigrain breads). Sunflower seedmeal is used asfeed for livestock (green fodder and silage). Other uses like paints, adhesives lubricants, soap manufacture, plastics and detergents, biofuel production etc. However, few species have other economic importance such as medical source and ornamentals7.

    Sunflower has broad adaptation to different edaphoclimatic zones. It gained more importance because of its unique oil quality, photo-insensitivity, tolerant to both low and high temperatures, short duration of maturity, can be grown year around, and the possibility of incorporating the crop in different cropping patterns. Therefore it is grown over much broader geographic regions, in the arid and semi arid regions under optimum temperature ranging from 23 to 28 °C. 8 and it performs better under drought conditions compared to other field crops9.

    To obtain high yield potential, the crop requires a good crop husbandry in terms of adequate water, nutrient supply; weed control and pest/diseases management throughout the growing period 10.

    The crop has a big, branched and extensive root system which enables to utilize nutrients with high efficiency compared with other field crops like Maize and Sorghum 11.

    Sunflower is considered one of the promising oil crops in Sudan. It is well suited to Sudan environmental conditions. It is grown as winter crop under irrigated conditions, and as summer crop under rain-fed 12.

    To attain maximum yield, the crop requires fertilizers. Synthetic fertilizers are widely used, with less attention to organic fertilizers. However, today more attention is paid to organic fertilizers as a remedy to cure the ills of the chemical fertilizers in the face of dramatic and substantially increase prices of the chemical fertilizers. However, it is reported that application of organic fertilizer in Sunflower production has increased both sunflower oil quality and yield attributes 13, therefore; it became necessary to develop a workable, compatible package of nutrient management through organic sources for various crops, capable of providing all the essential minerals to promote crop growth and development 13.

    In Sudan; most if not all Sunflower growers use synthetic fertilizers in crop production for a long time. For the above quoted reason farmers began to look for alternative sources of fertilizers; among which a herb plant called Argel which had been traditionally in use in different parts of Sudan since.

    Argel (Solenostemmaargel) is a herb plant14; which is locally known as Hargal (Arabic). The plant has many uses; ranging from medicinal to fertilizer and pesticides. Nevertheless, tradition farmers in some parts of Sudan use Argel as pest replants, curing illness and sometimes as fertilizer. Despite the great importance; Argel is not given the necessary care as fertilizer except in the field of horticulture, specifically the palm date tree.

    Sunflower yield differs according to cultivars, prevailed climate condition and adopted cultural practices. During the season 2015/2016 the world total production was about 39.19 million metric tons, with an average yield of 1.7 metric tons/ha obtained from an area of 23.06 million hectares 15, compared to the domestic productivity of 222 kg/Fed 16. It is clear that there is a gap between the local and world average yield, but, recently the yield improved due to the application of new technologies. However, the major producing countries are Ukraine, Russia, European Union, Argentina Turkey, United States, India and China, accounting for 70% of global production 14, while the major exporting countries are the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), United States of America (USA), and Argentina are the biggest exporting countries 15.

    According to Arab Organization for Agricultural Development, the other producing countries are Turkey, Pakistan, Egypt, Syria, Morocco and Iraq with the latest having the largest cultivated area of about 5,975,000 ha. producing 89,000 metric ton17.

    During the period from 1980's to 199's Sudan has witnessed a leap in Sunflower production, when Sunflower hybrid cultivars; the Hysun-33 and PAN-7351 were introduced from Australia and South Africa 18,19, beside the release of two open pollinated varieties namely; Bolero and Rodio under the names Damazin-1 and Damazin-2, respectively20. The crop gained ground, and was grown in the central clay plain under large scale ran-fed farming, and limited areas in irrigated schemes. But its expansion was confronted with several production constraints21.

    It is reported that Sunflower was introduced to Gezira Research Station-Wad Medani -Sudan in 1932, then the research was extended to other research stations in 1960s. The commercial production of Sunflower began in late 1980’s and the early 1990’s following the introduction of hybridscultivars 18,19. It began in Blue Nile State El Damazin area, which considered as the highest potential for growing sunflower under mechanized rain-fed farming due the good amount of rainfall, and vast arable fertile cultivable land. This experience was pioneered by EL Sheik Mustafa El Amin Company. Then it expanded from Blue Nile to other rain-fed areas like Gedarif and El Renk 14. The crop also grown under irrigation sector in ALRahad, Al Gezeria, Sennar and El Gash, Blue Nile and White Nile Pumps Irrigation Schemes. The highest yield (621 Kg/fed.) was obtained during 2011/2012. Unfortunately, due to financial and political reasons, the productivity deteriorated and the area declined to 57000 fed14.

    Moreover, in Sudan, the hybrid varieties such as Hysun 33 and Pioneer were reported to perform better than the open pollinated as far as yield concern. Therefore, hybrid cultivars were widely grown in Sudan due to seed availability in the market; representing 90% of the cultivating area by Sunflower22. It is reported that, there are many cultivars in the world; but they differ in their seed characteristics, oil content, plant height, and maturity date23.

    Materials and Methods

    A trial was conducted during 2017/2018; at Agricultural Farm of the College of Agriculture-University of Bahri –AlKadaro- Sudan, in a heavy clay soil with pH ranges between 7.5 - 8 described as saline soil. Where the two Sunflower cultivars, the Serena and Opera (H-16-096\0306) were studied in split-split-plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The two cultivars were considered as the main-plot treatments, whilethe four levels of Nitrogen (N0, N1, N2 and N3)as subplot treatments, and the four levels of Argel (A0, A1, A2, and A3) as sub-subplot treatments.

    The rates of application of Argel were 0, 140, 240 and 340 Kg/fed., while the treatments of Nitrogen were 0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/fed. All cultural practices such as sowing date; frequent irrigation, thinning, and application of herbicide were timely carried out as recommended by the Research Centre in Sudan. Data pertaining agronomic traitslike Leaf Area (LA), Plant Height (m), Leaf Number (LN), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Mean Seed Weight were randomly collected. The said data were analyzed by Statistic 8 Software. The results were presented in the form of tables and figures. (Plate 1 and Plate 2)

    Plate 1. First irrigation of Sunflower (Serena and Opera), Farm of the college of Agriculture, University of Bahri at Alkadaro - Sudan (2017/2018)
    Plate 1.

    Plate 2. Sunflower (Serena and Opera) at flowering stage-Farm of the College of Agriculture, University of Bahri - Alkadaro-Sudan (2017/2018)
    Plate 2.

    Results and Discussion

    All results of data analysis presented in tables and figures followed by discussion. Moreover, the results of statistic 8 software are found in the appendix.

    The results of the data analysis demonstrated that the overall leaf Area of Serena and Opera cultivars (Table 1 and Figure 1) has significantly increased when treated with Argel and Nitrogen (F=7.22, P<0.001). Both treatments N1 and A1 for Serena produced bigger Leaf Area (134.29 and 137.95) respectively compared with other treatments. For Opera, both N2, and A1 produced the biggest Leaf Area (136.27, 118.53) respectively compared with the control. Moreover, the result showed there is no significant difference in the leaf area of Serena and Opera cultivars due to application of either Argel or Nitrogen. Furthermore, the two cultivars “Serena and Opera” responded similarly (F=2.68, P<0.2001) to Argel and Nitrogen treatments. (Table 2, Figure 2)

    Table 1. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on the Leaf Area of Serena and Opera Cultivars. AlKadaro Sudan (2017/2018)
    Cultivar Serena Mean
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4
    N0 17.127 19.575 74.200 85.852 49.18
    N1 50.860 129.925 148.975 206.950 134.17
    N2 42.725 126.125 160.625 200.100 134.39
    N3 26.425 94.050 136.200 179.325 108.98
    A0 19.250 39.825 42.900 54.875 39.21
    A1 27.000 109.550 170.625 244.625 137.95
    A2 27.400 81.525 126.075 165.525 100.13
    A3 20.825 68.225 125.457 216.200 107.67
    Cultivar Opera Mean
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4
    N0 16.250 20.500 69.500 82.225 47.11
    N1 32.080 105.280 180.340 191.470 127.29
    N2 22.975 82.100 122.050 319.800 136.73
    N3 28.500 90.525 162.600 83.975 91.4
    A0 20.500 40.900 71.575 83.700 54.15
    A1 26.250 94.025 133.150 220.695 118.53
    A2 27.400 82.200 154.100 208.133 117.95
    A3 19.845 84.900 119.733 75.250 74.932

    Figure 1. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on Leaf Area (LA) of Serena and Opera
    Figure 1.

    Table 2. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on Plant Height (cm.)of Serena and Opera – AlKadaro-Sudan (2017/201)
    Cultivar Serena Mean
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4
    N0 24.250 27.750 30.200 34.825 29.25
    N1 15.850 44.225 64.550 86.800 52.85
    N2 14.625 35.250 71.775 93.875 53.88
    N3 16.150 29.750 61.750 78.400 46.51
    A0 18.900 24.250 28.125 35.150 26.60
    A1 11.556 35.700 69.975 98.675 53.97
    A2 10.875 22.725 54.500 96.800 46.22
    A3 16.950 19.575 78.400 90.475 51.35
    Cultivar Opera Mean
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4  
    N0 13.175 29.750 32.575 39.225 29.43
    N1 13.040 34.460 70.500 88.860 51.71
    N2 18.725 34.400 71.225 84.550 52.22
    N3 17.475 25.125 63.850 80.500 46.73
    A0 14.950 29.000 33.550 43.375 30.21
    A1 10.825 33.525 48.625 99.900 48.21
    A2 13.500 24.125 78.250 100.900 54.19
    A3 10.367 27.033 59.467 93.333 47.55

    Figure 2. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on Plant height (cm(ز
    Figure 2.

    Considering Table 2, and Figure 2, the results showed that the Plant Height of Serena and Opera cultivars was significantly influenced by application of Argel or Nitrogen as fertilizers (F= 4.28, P <0.0012). Moreover, the Nitrogen level N2 and Argel level A1 gave the highest Plant Height (53.88, 53.97 cm) for Serena compared to other treatments, while N1 and A2 gave the highest Plant Height (52.97, 54.19 cm) respectively for Opera compared with the other treatments. Furthermore, the result exhibited there is no significant difference in the plant height of Serena and Opera cultivars as a result of application of either Argel or Nitrogen. In addition, the plant height of the two the cultivars responded equally to Argel and Nitrogen applications (F=0.03, P < 0.877).

    The results of analysis (Table 3, and Figure 3) revealed that the Leaf Number of both Serena and Opera cultivars was significantly increased when treated with Argel and Nitrogen (F =3.90, P <0.0024). Moreover, the results displayed that N1 and A0 produced more number of leaf (29, 27) respectively for Serena, while N3 and A1, A2 produced more similar Leaf Number (23) for opera compared to the other treatments.

    Table 3. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on leaf Number ofSerena and Opera – AlKadaro-Sudan (2017/201)
      Serena
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4 Mean
    N0 13 25 27 30 23
    N1 18 28 33 40 29
    N2 12 24 27 31 23
    N3 15 24 27 28 23
    A0 16 27 29 38 27
    A1 9 21 27 29 21
    A2 10 19 26 31 21
    A3 12 19 26 30 21
      Opera
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4 Mean
    N0 15 22 21 20 19
    N1 13 20 27 30 22
    N2 11 21 27 30 22
    N3 14 21 27 30 23
    A0 12 25 24 23 21
    A1 13 23 26 30 23
    A2 12 22 28 32 23
    A3 10 21 26 27 21

    Figure 3. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on leaf number of Serena and Opera
    Figure 3.

    Furthermore, the result presented that there is no significant difference in the leaf number of Serena and Opera cultivars as a result of application of either Argel or Nitrogen. Additionally, the leaf number of Serena and Opera cultivars responded similarly to Argel and Nitrogen (F=7.02, P < 0.0770)

    The results in Table 4 and Figure 4, present the Leaf Area Index of Serena and Opera cultivars was significantly enlarged due to application of Argel or Nitrogen as stimulants (F= 3.83, P< 0.0026). Moreover, the results displayed that N2 and A1 gave the highest Leaf Area Index (574.12, 591.85) respectively for Serena compared to the other treatments, while N3 and A1 produced the highest Leaf Area Index (544.06, 494.19) for Opera respectively compared with other treatments (Table 4, Figure 4). Furthermore,the result showed no significant difference in the leaf area index of Serena and Opera cultivars as a result of application of either Argel or Nitrogen. Furthermore, the leaf area index of the two cultivars responded in the same way to Argel and Nitrogen applications (F=0.88, P < 0.4166).

    Table 4. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on leaf Area Index of Serena and Opera – AlKadaro-Sudan (2017/201)
      Serena
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4 Mean
    N0 145.500 258.500 671.075 794.500 467.39
    N1 125.893 376.070 586.928 912.928 500.45
    N2 183.535 540.208 688.388 884.358 574.12
    N3 111.100 402.930 584.000 768.643 474.16
    A0 284.000 290.875 295.875 299.225 292.49
    A1 117.748 504.708 825.283 919.695 591.85
    A2 116.250 349.325 527.460 761.035 438.51
    A3 90.748 302.573 617.500 918.250 482.26
      Opera
    Treatment R1 R2 R3 R4 Mean
    N0 48.325 82.250 118.750 129.575 94.72
    N1 132.764 473.800 628.186 882.880 529.40
    N2 85.285 352.175 522.960 817.040 444.36
    N3 174.965 372.785 649.500 1302.993 544.06
    A0 154.650 374.922 567.000 683.035 444.97
    A1 105.215 324.500 498.573 1048.497 494.19
    A2 88.605 347.892 560.750 948.892 486.53
    A3 81.000 363.997 514.413 891.857 462.81

    Figure 4. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on leaf Area Index
    Figure 4.

    However, all results obtained in this study coincide with the results obtained by experiment conducted at Quoz Hindi area, Elgureir, Merawi Locality, Northern State, Sudan during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, when Argel was applied to Palm date tress as dry fertilizer., this treatment has enhanced flowering and yield parameters of date palms and improved the physical characteristics of the fruits 23Tagelsir I. M. Idris,1 Asma M. A. Ibrahim,1 Elfatih M. Mahdi2 and AwadK.Taha (2011): Influence of argel (Solenostemma argel Del. Hayne) soil applications on flowering and yield of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America ISSN Print: 2151-7517, ISSN Online: 2151-7525, doi:10.5251/abjna.2011.2.3.538.542 © 2011, ScienceHuβ, http://www.scihub.org/ABJNA (30) 27

    Table 5 reviled that N2 (47.713) and A3 (56.847) produced highest Mean Seed Weight for Serena, while N3 (43.232) and A1 (57.474) produces the highest Mean Seed Weight for Opera.

    Table 5. Effect of Argel and Nitrogen on seed weight of Serena and Opera- AlKadaro-Sudan (2017/201)
    Serena
    Treatment Mean Seed weight
    N0 24.650
    N1 24.880
    N2 47.713
    N3 30.978
    A0 28.275
    A1 51.240
    A2 36.318
    A3 56.847
    Opera
    Treatment Mean Seed weight
    N0 13.100
    N1 38.952
    N2 31.467
    N3 43.232
    A0 48.265
    A1 57.150
    A2 41.747
    A3 36.213

    It worth mentioning that, in Sudan, despite the technological advancement in the area of Sunflower crop production, yet there a big gap between the yields obtained by farmer 99 to 374 kg/fed. under rain-fed and 09 to 813 kg/fed under irrigation compared to Research plots 513 to 1062 kg/fed and 410 to 874 kg/fed under irrigation and rain-fed farming respectively. This low productivity is attributed to many factors; including organization set up, crop management, finance, marketing, pests/diseases, policy, environmental factors like erratic and fluctuating rainfall, Poor extension services, strategies and production plans15.

    Mamoun I. Dawelbeit (2012): Sunflower Production in the Sudan. Opportunities and Challenges. The First International Conference on Seeds Oil –Corinthia Hotel, Khartoum –Sudan, Nov. 2012. (31)28.

    Conclusion and Recommendations

    This study aimed at investigating the possible potentiality of Argel as an economic organic fertilizer that can play an important role to improve crop yield and save hard currency, in a word characterized by low crop yield, dynamic population expansion, increasing demand for food in the face of substantially; dramatic increases of prices of the synthetic fertilizer.

    In the light of the above discussion, it is time to look for alternative sources for fertilizers, particularly the organic fertilizers. Therefore, this study was directed towards looking for easy, accessible, socially acceptable, economic sound and environmentally friend. In this regard, Argel, was studied. The results displayed that Argel is similar to nitrogen fertilizer has significantly increased all studied parameters of the two Sunflower cultivars,.

    The study recommends for further study; to include all agronomic traits, yield, yield components, and oil content of different sunflower cultivars as well as other field crops.

    Appendix





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