Academic Editor: Shuji Kitahara, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Japan.
Checked for plagiarism: Yes
Review by: Single-blind
Copyright © 2019 Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Human anatomy is a biological science that deals with the normal structure of body and its function and abnormal or pathological deviation. It represents the main basic medical science. The anatomical sciences include gross anatomy studied by the naked eyes without use of magnifying devices; microanatomy investigated using microscopes; developmental anatomy dealing with embryogenesis and pre- and postnatal changes; radiological anatomy using X-ray and other imaging modalities; functional or physiological anatomy; pathological anatomy; genetics or called study of inheritance; anthropology clarifying the differences in structure in-between different races. Anatomical sciences represent the corner-stone for all other medical sciences and guide for clinicians in diagnosis and management of different cases. Therefore, we can say: “no anatomy study is without clinical correlations & vice versa; no clinical application without anatomy knowledge”. 1
Currently, the air and food are prone to increasing levels of pollutions due wide spread of different minute particles use such as nanoparticles and others in industry. This represents a big challenge to the general health. The normal anatomy of human body is vulnerable to various hazards resulting from human body exposure to many elements that could be found in foods and air. Chemicals introduced in manufacture of food as well as nanoparticles in industry should be thoroughly investigated for their possible hazards on the normal anatomy of human body throughout their use.
Structure is a mirror reflecting any change or illness of the human body. Therefore, it is essential to investigate such changes to minimize their effect or even to recommend abstinence of the more dangerous particles. Fortunately, there are many natural products that might alleviate the harms. Therefore, future research is recommended; and should also include investigating ameliorating effect of possible protective agents such antioxidants against any detectable deviation in normal structure.