Open Access

 

Definition Of Open Access

The free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of research articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited
In simple words Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions . It removes price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees) and permission barriers. It's policy protects the copy right of the author.

Difference Between Accessibility And Availability

The information we do know is out there but remains outside of our practical, infrastructural or legal reach is the barrier of accessibility .What the digital convergence has done is to solve it, by bringing much previously inaccessible information into the public domain. Being widely available is not the same thing as being widely accessible. Locking research works behind pay walls makes them widely inaccessible to anyone without the means and is effectively barred from knowledge. Open Access dissolves this situation by increasing the net amount of information available to us and thus creating a wealth of information.

Necessity Of Open Access (Accessibility)

Accessibility of one generation of scientific work for others is quite important. It reduces the cost, and increases the precision and clarity, of the next generation of scientific results. The confirmation of previous results is vital for the advancement of science. If scientists cannot verify prior findings, they are less likely to build upon that work. Open access to the materials behind the lesser-known results led to a more pronounced boost of confidence in those findings. Rather than attempting to replicate results from scratch, having the source materials on hand makes it easier for scientists to build on the original findings.

Economic Advantages Of Open Access Models

In what the economists acknowledge is a rough calculation, they believe open accessibility lower the cost per citation by a factor of 10, meaning knowledge spreads among the scientific community much more cheaply than it would otherwise.
Without open access there would be a lot of duplication and a lot of money spent on research already done. That kind of expenditure may work at a company with a product that will be in stores a year from now but research won't have a 'pay off' sometimes for many years and it may never be a monetary one.

Benefits Of Open Access

Is there any benefit to the researcher and, if not, why would anyone do it?
The benefits of open science to the science community receiving the data are obvious. A currency of value to many investigators is the number of times their publications are cited. 
Citation counts are often used in research funding, and promotion decisions and have even been assigned a salary-increase dollar value for the scientific contribution of a paper. Boosting citation rate is thus is a potentially important factor for scientific authors. If scientists know having open data leads to more citations, it leads to more open access articles which leads to more citations obviously.
 
 
Experts Comments

“When things become more open, it’s not simply that you get more research, but you get more diverse research,” –Stern

 

Peer Review

Processing Of Manuscripts:

1. First Stage: All manuscripts are automatically logged into our tracking system when they are submitted online through our Manuscript processing system. Manuscripts are subjected to scrutiny by the Editor-in-chief or the staff editors as necessary.

2. Tracking Manuscript: Authors are able to track the decision process via our Manuscript processing system.

3. Peer Review: Selected manuscripts which are up to the standards after the initial review will be sent to external peer review. Reviewers maintain the manuscript confidentiality, without the permission of the editor-in-chief they cannot disclose, print or copy anything from the manuscript. The reviewer's identity is not revealed to the author or to other reviewers of the same manuscript. However, each peer reviewer will receive a copy of the decision letter for the manuscript that she or he has reviewed. Authors are required to declare any and all conflicts of interest—financial, personal, or other—that may affect the information. If an author of a manuscript under consideration has a primary appointment at the editor-in-chief's institution, decisions regarding that manuscript will be made by an advisor who is independent of the editor-in-chief.

4. Decision Making: Most decisions are made within 90 days of receipt of the manuscript. Authors are notified of decisions via email.

5. Revisions: Most manuscripts require revisions, minor or extensive, before they are accepted in full for publication. Authors receive instructions for revisions in manuscript decision letters, based on peer review feedback and staff editor's feedback.

6. Presentation: All accepted manuscripts are edited for content, overall presentation, completeness, clarity, balance and sometimes for grammar and correct style also, so authors should be prepared for further revisions (sometimes extensive) during editing. These revisions reflect the editor-in-chief's and the staff editor's detailed critiques. Some changes are needed to make content clearer to a broad readership; others are required so that the manuscript will conform to be consistent with rules for standardized terminology, reference style, table style, spelling, and word usage. 

7. Proof Reading (Before Type Set): It is the author’s sole responsibility to proofread the final, edited version, which the corresponding author approves of the accuracy of the manuscript on behalf of all authors. Corresponding author can do this after consulting with all co-authors or by obtaining their advance authority to approve the final version on their behalf. Once the final, approved version is typeset, the authors may not rewrite or revise content (except to correct errors in data or typesetting); therefore, it is essential that the corresponding author ensure the accuracy of the final, edited version before it is sent to the publishing house for final checking and typesetting.

8. Proof Reading (After Type Set): The corresponding author is responsible for proofreading the typeset materials, and consequently all authors are wholly responsible for the accuracy of the final printed version based on that proof. The corresponding author may correct typographical errors and data errors but may not make discretionary or non-error changes to the proof. If the authors make discretionary changes that should have been made during editing, they may be charged the cost of these extra changes.